H1a: Verbal immediacy
behaviors increase the likelihood of success in CF campaigns.
Bolter and Grusin provided various examples of the hypermediacy (such as television, rock music stage productions, and World Wide Web) and immediacy
(linear perspective paintings, photography, the Hollywood film style).
Based on the literature review and theoretical framework, five variables are identified for investigation which are out-of-class-communication (OCC), trust, motivation, and teacher immediacy
that included the verbal and non-verbal behavior of teacher in the class.
Reflection is a stepping back prior to decision, a more considered "desire" aimed at action, so that a gap opens up within immediacy
to allow ethical decision-making.
The purpose of this study was to determine the learning activities employed by successful instructors in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida, and describe the cognitive levels reached and teacher immediacy
behaviors utilized during the learning activities.
The primary purpose of this study is to determine how known indicators of instructional immediacy
relate to motivation and learning among military and civilian students in online classrooms.
(Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a; Zhang et al., 2007a), credibility (Zhang, 2009), and clarity (Zhang & Huang, 2008) have all been found to have a direct effect on affective learning and mediated effect on cognitive learning.
Instructional communication scholars overwhelmingly agree that immediacy
is an effective behavior that instructors must consider and utilize (Richmond, Lane, & McCroskey, 2006).
Studies including Christophel (1990), and Christensen and Menzel (1998) suggest that improved instructor immediacy
affects student motivation, which in turn improves student learning.
The purpose of this quantitative content analysis study was to examine whether independently-authored online education textbooks published from 1999 to 2007 included acknowledgment of scholarly studies pertaining to a teaching technique termed immediacy
. For this study, teacher immediacy
in the online classroom has been operationalized as non-verbal teacher communications that foster psychological closeness and acknowledge student feelings in a timely manner.