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Once T cells and other immune cells have become fully activated (which usually takes place while the cells are in one of the body's lymph nodes), they use certain molecules on their surface to control their movement out of lymph nodes and into the blood stream.
The team saw a quick and massive influx of immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, in lung tissue from mice infected with the reconstructed 1918 strain.
In the case of pandemic influenza, the highly potent immune stimulatory ability of the Virosome Biologicals' technology is particularly important because vaccine material is likely to be in short supply.
We do not have a good understanding of what immune responses are needed to control HIV--and while a handful of people have used immune-suppressive drugs like prednisone to treat HIV infection, these drugs were not developed or formally tested for that purpose, and little is known about whether, when, or how to do this safely.
There is evidence that the innate immune system recognizes and responds to protozoan parasites.
Other failures of the immune system lead to other diseases: overreactions (allergies); attacks against healthy cells leading to the autoimmune diseases, as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, etc.
However, from an immunologist's perspective, the idea that antigen was needed to bolster the immune response never made much sense.
As a group, older people -- I'm talking about 65- or 70-plus-year-olds -- have a reduced immune response, especially the part that depends on a kind of white blood cell known as the T lymphocyte, or T cell.
So baboon-cell reinforcements might help battle HIV and restore Getty's immune system.
Now that the FDA has approved Tysabri's return to the market after deliberating over the results of recent safety studies (see page 38), it seems like a good time to step back and look at the progress that researchers are making toward a full understanding of what goes wrong in the immune system in people with multiple sclerosis.
In type 1 diabetes, a person's immune cells attack and eventually wipe out all the beta cells.