Also note impedance-controlled PCBs are not produced using higher accuracy processes; the "control" implies the creation of test coupons for all possible impedance situations on all layers and enhanced testing whether the target is met or not.
Impedance calculations (especially when performed using web-based design tools) usually assume a rectangular cross-section of the finished circuit trace with a perfect current return path.
Therefore, improved current source impedance
criterion can be obtained as (9).
This property was investigated via exposure of the 4% LiCl-PVDF sensor and 40% ZnO3% LiCl-PVDF sensor, which shows the best linearity of impedance
response, to environments with 11% and 97% RH alternated repeatedly for 10 s each for 600 s.
Connolly's elastic impedance
equation assumes using S-P wave velocity ratio K as a constant for the whole data set, which is an unrealistic approach.
 used 3D printing to produce MPP specimen with 0.6 mm holes for impedance
Consequently, the overall response of the biological tissues to an alternating electrical signal generates a complex sbioelectrical impedance
. Mathematically, the impedance
Z[angle]([theta]) is calculated by dividing the voltage (V[angle]([[theta].sub.1])) measured by applied current (I[angle]([[theta].sub.2])) as
In the patient-active training, the end-effector was mechanical impedance
, and conversely, the human arm was regarded as mechanical admittance .
With a hairpin SIR, the line length [[theta].sub.0] changes according to the impedance
Hence, if an ECS is mounted onto the tested ferromagnetic sample surface without lift-off fluctuation, the shift of the ECS impedance
is mainly induced by the changes in the resistance and inductance of the ferromagnetic material, which may indicate the stress or microstructure changes of the material.
It needs some calculation to establish the quantitative relation between the effective surface impedance
and the constitutive parallel electric metasurfaces.
In section 2 of this study, we introduced a conventional non-contact impedance