See: dishonesty
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Texto entre comillas marcado con una linea continua vertical a la derecha: <<Imitatur virtutem improbitas, et zizania contendit triticum videri, quod quidem specie quadam tritico assimilatur, gustu autem a sentientibus facile discernitur>>.
Desde el punto de vista de Kant, existen tres grados de esta propension: 1) La fragilidad (fragilitas), que es la "debilidad del corazon humano en el seguimiento de las maximas adoptadas"; 2) la impureza (impuritas, improbitas), que es la "propension a mezclar motivos impulsores inmorales con morales (aun cuando ello aconteciera con buena mira y bajo maximas del bien)" y 3) la malignidad (vitiositas, pravitas), que es la "propension a la adopcion de maximas malas, esto es: malignidad de la naturaleza humana o del corazon" (34).
Thus men endowed with reason at their birth Take on the form of beasts irrational.] (169-78) To justification of the repression by means of his notion of the peasantry's always subhuman, bestial nature, Gower adds this further blame, by means of another received notion, namely, that, by improbitas, the rebels brought on themselves their own reduction to subhumanity.
480-524) and its prose explication (4p3-4p4), where the divine interlocutor wishes to establish that improbitas renders bestial those who succumb to it: that "uitiosos, tametsi humani corporis speciem seruent, in beluas tamen animorum qualitate mutari" [though wicked men preserve the appearance of human bodies, they are transformed into beasts so far as the quality of their minds is concerned] (4p4.1).
"Quicquid a bono deficit esse desistit" [whatever departs from the good ceases to exist] (4p3.15); since human viciousness is such a defect of the good, "necesse est ut quos ab humana condicione deiecit infra homines merito detrudat improbitas; euenit igitur ut quem transformatum uitiis uideas hominem aestimare non possis" [it must follow that wickedness deservedly imposes subhuman status on those whom it has dislodged from the human condition.
In the long post-Homeric meanwhile, this notion that improbitas rendered humans in beluas was also widely invoked in explanation of other instances of human-beast metamorphosis.
"Minor fuit ipsa infamia vero" [the ill report was less bad than the truth], the god found; and, since "longa mora est quantum noxae sit ubique reperrum / enumerare" [it were long to tell how much damage everywhere was found] (214-15), Juppiter recounts the assault on him of the tyrannus Lycaon, and his punishment of him by a metamorphosis in beluam, of a sort appropriate to the improbitas at issue, reflecting the savage nature of Lycaon's crimes Cnunc quoque sanguine gaudet").
De los esclavos, explicitamente se destaca su desfachatez e improbitas (Symm., Epist.