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The unmarked indicative and the imperative belong to the direct mode of reporting.
In both main varieties of Livonian--Salaca and Courland Livonian--the present tense form of the reported indicative is marked by the suffix -(j)i, e.
In the case of negation the negation verb ab 'not', which is identical with the indicative negation marker, is placed in front of the affirmative form both in the singular (Example 2 (KET 37)) and the plural (Example 3 (KET 28)).
Interestingly, although the morphological distinction between the active (personal) and the impersonal voice is extremely pervasive in the Finnic languages (extending to both finite and non-finite verb forms), this distinction is neutralized in the present tense forms of the Livonian reported indicative.
The nominative source of the Livonian reported indicative marker makes it especially close to the reported evidentials in the eastern dialects of South Estonian despite the fact that agreement with the subject in number is a specific feature of Courland Livonian (cf.
Then, chapter 7 argues that indicatives are thus not propositions and have no truth-value (the "NTV thesis," p.
Chapters 15-21 address a wide variety of issues related to subjunctives, including a probabilistic "drop-truth" proposal that parallels NTV for indicatives (chapter 16), backward conditionals (chapter 18), and a rejection of Nelson Goodman's account of subjunctives (chapters 20-21).
It's a commonplace among philosophers that what so innocently malingers in indicative language as, "If Bennett didn't write this excellent Guide, then someone else did," can rapidly morph by a little fancy into the eyebrow-arching subjunctive/counterfactual, "If Bennett hadn't written this marvelous work, then someone else would have.
First, that the case can be spelled out so that there are no further facts which favour one counterfactual over its contrary which do not also favour one of the indicatives in the live Jones case over its contrary.
So when they put their information together and learn that he did have both they will conclude that both indicatives would have been false.
So there is one set of facts which preserves Gibbard for indicatives and not for counterfactuals.
The important point is not that the standard analyses of counterfactuals block conditional excluded middle, but that the reasoning that makes it plausible for indicatives fails for counterfactuals.