To this end, this paper argues that colonialism and informality
co-produce a 'state of exception' based on the socio-political construction of the human/animal binary, whereby the animality of humans and the personhood of animals are both denied, to exclude animal rights from the ambit of formal urban governance.
But in recent years, that deference has waned (she blames the informality
of social media).
Although the issue of scale isn't the same as informality
, it's pretty close, he said; the issues are "first cousins.
is a symptom of poor institutional quality such as a burdensome regulatory framework and weak monitoring or enforcement power of the state (La Porta and Schleifer, 2014).
Extant research on informality
has progressed in two key research streams.
Zeroing on Mogadishu and hinging on Farah's counterimaginary literary fiction on urban governance and informality
, he describes Mogadishu as a "world-capital of things-gone-completely-to-hell" (p.
It is important to account for the possibility of informality
because in many economies a large share of total economic activity takes place in the informal sector.
Such a model allowed me to analyze how three different policies, unemployment benefits, a formal lump sum tax, and a job creation subsidy, affect the levels of informality
in the labor market.
among wage earners prevents increases in productivity, thus pulling down economic growth.
Apart from tax rates, additional forces seem to drive informality
in high-income countries.
But the natural informality
is refreshing, William driving his family home instead of opting for a chauffeur-driven limo.
By investigating local policy making as a governance process (Benz, 2007b), characterized by the interaction of actors from the local public administration, the municipal council, and organized civil society, and by understanding this interaction as kind of (political) communication, questions arise regarding the role of informality
within these processes: Does informality
play any role in the everyday business of the policy makers?