A terminological dichotomy used to exist between the hegemonic Ga'ay and their subject Kayan and Bahau, or the proto-Ga'ay and proto-Kayan and Bahau, who were the last to arrive in the Baram and pushed the latter to northeast Borneo, and the Ken'yeah, Ken'yah, or Kenyah ('inlanders
', 'barbarians'), who consisted at that time not only of the Kayan and Bahau but also of other inland groups.
However, Lipset emphasises that the Murik are more gender-equal in contrast to the Papuan-speaking inlanders
whose masculinity is epitomise d by the practice of 'deeply misogynist male cults' (p.
In fact, however, many Kalimantan inlanders
, including Kayanic groups of East Kalimantan among whom I conducted anthropological research for two and half years (1996-8), have a knowledge of both dry and wet rice cultivation.
7 Summaries of newspaper reports on the uprising are found in "De rust op Java", Indische Gids (hereafter IG) 26, 2 (1904): 1238-39; "Hadjivrees", IG 26, 2 (1904): 1367-69; "Grieven van Inlanders
", IG 26,2 (1904): 1545-46; "Het oproer te Gedangan", IG 27,2 (1905): 1532-33; "Nog eens de Gedangan-zaak", IG 27, 2 (1905): 1712-14.
Moreover, this was a society in which the majority of the native Indonesians, whom the Dutch called 'Inlanders
', were purposely kept uneducated, the Ethical Policy notwithstanding, and that it is thus no wonder that people like Nanna and Carolien had contact mainly with native Indonesians who had humble jobs.
Through transactions called jena, people living along the ocean used to exchange products with inlanders
. Although exchange rates between farm and ocean products were fixed, these transactions also involved bargaining, delayed payments and debts, as evidenced by the vocabulary and in travellers' accounts.
van Ossenbruggen, "Over het primitief begrip van grondeigendom, getoetst aan de hieromtrent heerschende begrippen bij de Chineezen, Inlanders
en eenige andere volken en volksstammen", De Indische Gids 27, nos.
However, according to this account, he also secretly sent warning messengers inland to the Navatusila, as a result of which, the inlanders
were prepared, and able to ambush and quickly rout the invaders.
This group was largely composed of copra traders, but also of owners of coconut gardens, for example the opu of Bonea, Muhamad Daeng Malewa, who owned the largest number of coconut trees on Selayar; S b11/r35 opgave inlanders
met inkomen boven inlandsche bevolking, 1924, 2 (Weltevreden: Landsdrukkerij, 1926), p.
van Ossenbruggen, "Over het begrip van grondeigendom getoetst aan de hieromtrent heerschende begrippen bij de Chineezen, Inlanders
en eenige andere volken en volksstammen", Indische Gids 27 (1905): 161-92, 360-92.