insurgent

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insurgent

a person or group that rises in revolt against an established government or authority but whose conduct does not amount to belligerency.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

INSURGENT. One who is concerned in an insurrection. He differs from a rebel in this, that rebel is always understood in a bad sense, or one who unjustly opposes the constituted authorities; insurgent may be one who justly opposes the tyranny of constituted authorities. The colonists who opposed the tyranny of the English government were insurgents, not rebels.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.