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We conclude that using clonidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine for continuous paravertebral intercostal nerve block improves pain relief after thoracotomy, but hypotension and sedation are adverse effects interfering with its clinical application.
14] In a cadaveric and electrophysiological study, Fahim and colleagues showed that the most significant intercostal nerve contributions to the anterolateral wall came from the T11 and T12 nerves.
Patent ductus arteriosus - closure; Patent foramen ovale - closure ; Pectus excavatum and Pectus carinatum - Surgical Correction; Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for primary and secondary lung cancers; Peripheral Vascular Disease Screening; Photophoresis, extracorporeal - Therapy for Heart Transplant Rejection; Post-thoracotomy Pain - Intraoperative, Intercostal Nerves, Cryoanalgesia; Pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation; Pulmonary valve repair and/or replacement;
Thus, stimulating along the lower thoracic ribs closer to the origin of intercostal nerves may increase abdominal muscle responses.
The rectus sheath block anaesthetises the 9th, 10th and 11th intercostal nerves in its course through the rectus sheath.