TABLE 1 Risk factors for preterm delivery Modifiable Potentially modifiable Non-modifiable Low BMI/obesity Short or prolonged Black race interpregnancy interval
Smoking Maternal stress/ Genetics depression (Higher order) multiple Prior preterm birth gestations Education and Short cervix socioeconomic status Infection/inflammation First or second trimester vaginal bleeding Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.
A wide literature has shown the adverse outcomes of both short (less than two years) and long (more than five years) interpregnancy intervals
(IPIs) for the next pregnancy, yet few studies have addressed the effect of IPIs on maternal morbidity.
6%) when interpregnancy interval
was less than 12 months and it was lower among mothers who had interval of more than 24 months.
Zhu B-P, Effect of interpregnancy interval
on birth outcomes: findings from three recent US studies, International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 2005, 89(Suppl.
Predisposing factors include young age, grand multiparity, low socioeconomic status, illiteracy, ignorance and short interpregnancy intervals
The significant risk factors associated with LBW after adjusting for confounders were mother's age <19 years, interpregnancy interval
<2 years, gestational age <37 weeks, weight of the mother <45 kg, and anemia.
AJ-shaped relationship exists between interpregnancy interval
and congenital anomalies," said principal investigator Dr.
Effects of interpregnancy interval
and outcome of the preceding pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes in Matlab, Bangladesh, BJOG.
Similar dose-exposure effects in SSR and in the rate of developmental anomalies are consistently present in other high-risk conditions characterized by menstrual cycle abnormalities, namely, inappropriate maternal age and interpregnancy interval
, specific seasons, endocrinologic disturbances, stress (and wars), inadequate lifestyle, and occupational burden, as described elsewhere (26, 33).
Increased Rate of Uterine Rupture Decreased Rate of Uterine Rupture Classic hysterotomy Spontaneous labor Two or more caesarean deliveries Prior vaginal delivery Single-layer closure Longer interpregnancy interval
Induction of labor Preterm delivery Use of prostaglandins Short interpregnancy interval
Infection at prior caesarean delivery
A significant association was observed between LBW and maternal age at consummation less than 20 years, maternal education, socio-economic status, interpregnancy interval
, antenatal visit less than 3, maternal height, pre-pregnancy maternal weight, habit of tobacco chewing, previous history of abortion and anemia.