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A person appointed to manage the affairs of another or to represent another in a judgment.In English Law, the name formerly given to practitioners in ecclesiastical and admiralty courts who performed duties similar to those of solicitors in ordinary courts.

In old English law, a proctor was an attorney who practiced in the ecclesiastical and admiralty courts. Proctors, also known as procurators, served a similar function as solicitors in the ordinary courts of England. The title of proctor was merged with that of solicitor in 1873, but it is sometimes used in the United States to designate practitioners in probate and admiralty courts.

The use of proctors and procurators was an important step in English law because it signified the acceptance of Legal Representation. Procuration allowed one person to give power to another to act in his behalf. The proctor became the agent of the client, legally entitled to perform all actions that the client could have performed.

A "procuracy" was the writing or instrument that authorized a proctor or procurator to act. The document called a "power of attorney," which authorizes an attorney or agent to represent a person's interests, is based on this relationship. A Power of Attorney may be general, giving the agent blanket authority to perform all necessary acts for the person, or specific, limiting the agent to certain actions.

The term procuracy was shortened to proxy, which has gained a more specific meaning. A proxy is a person who is substituted or designated by another to represent her, usually in a meeting or before a public body. Shareholders in a corporation commonly use a written proxy to give someone else the right to vote their shares at a shareholders' meeting.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


n. 1) in admiralty (maritime) law, an attorney. 2) person who keeps order.

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

PROCTOR. One appointed to represent in judgment the party who empowers him, by writing under his hand called a proxy. The term is used chiefly in the courts of civil and ecclesiastical law. The proctor is somewhat similar to the attorney. Avl. Parerg. 421.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
The spring protests could include refusing to invigilate exams, work to rule and day-long strikes if college governors adopt the structure.
The pay dispute has disrupted exams at 40 per cent of British universities, with lecturers refusing to set, mark and invigilate papers.
To the Christian right this will always be anathema, since the guidelines accept the propriety of a homosexual essence, and invigilate not sin but tactlessness.
Knut's Deputy National Treasurer James Ndiku said the Teachers Service Commission has interdicted several teachers after mistakes occurred in practical examinations after they were forced by their employer to invigilate the examinations against their will."Teachers are coerced by TSC to invigilate the national examinations only for them to carry the blame when a mishap occurs.
They may want people to invigilate exams, or show visitors around campus on open days: extra money for just a few hours' work
D Rigby, of St Helens, agrees: "I wanted to say how amusing I thought Valerie Hill's piece (Daily Post, July 28) was about having to invigilate a children's Cycling Proficiency Test when she wanted to go shopping in the Trafford Centre.
Thousands of students across the region are in the grip of exam chaos due to lecturers' refusals to set, invigilate or mark papers.
"In addition, from September 2005, teachers should not be required to invigilate external examinations."
She was going down some stairs on her way to invigilate a GCSE exam when she slipped and fell eight steps.
It is now illegal for teachers to be asked to cover exams in Welsh schools - but head teachers have spoken of their fears that paying extra staff to invigilate will stretch under-pressure budgets to breaking point.
Asked whether the Government would take action to stop a boycott going ahead, Mr Balls said that, although head teachers were legally obliged to invigilate Sats, it was not "simply about legal obligations".