Of the 341 fragments of grave monuments used in this analysis, 74 are dated by the year of the indiction (without identifying which indiction is meant) and 21 are dated by month alone, without an indiction date; of these 21, 8 are in the older Roman calendar style (mentioning the Kalends
, Nones, or Ides of the month) and 13 in the new calendar style (giving the numerical day of the month and, in one case, the day of the week).
This woman had devoutly attended nocturns and lauds on the Kalends
of November when the holy festival of All Saints is celebrated.
By focusing first upon Asterius's critique of the festival of Kalends, I will outline how Asterius perceived the failure of Hellenistic religion and society.
In his introduction to a homily attacking the New Year's festival of Kalends, Asterius proposed two criteria for a public festival: it must have a clear object and it must grant everyone a share of the enjoyment (Against Kalends, 2.1).
Citizens across the Roman Empire looked forward to Kalends, a four day festival that celebrated the beginning of the year.
Despite the Hellene Libanius's picture of happy unanimity during Kalends, it was the threat to or lack of unanimity that inspired Asterius's denunciation of the festival.
The more serious threat of Kalends, according to Asterius, lay in its failure to provide enjoyment to the whole people (the second criterion).
A passage at the end of the long sermon for the Kalends of January (M 62.52) restates the objection to the Donatist bishop of Carthage, Parmenian, that according to his ecclesiology the bishop is an indispensable mediator between God and the laity--a doctrine which in his reply to Parmenian's letter he denounced as 'the voice of Antichrist, intolerable to Christian ears'.
Augustine would have felt that celebrating the Kalends could be open to Manichee criticism.
It divided families when he asked them to observe a fast on the Kalends of January (62.7).
Citing Stern, but misreading Ides as Kalends
and forgetting about Easter, Grayzel, 1979, 157 incorrectly dates Eugenius's bull as January 1432.
389a During the consulships of the most distinguished Flavius Eucherius and the most distinguished Flavius Evagrius, one day before the Kalends