Labor

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LABOR. Continued operation; work.
     2. The labor and skill of one man is frequently used in a partnership, and valued as equal to the capital of another.
     3. When business has been done for another, and suit is brought to recover a just reward, there is generally contained in the declaration, a count for work and labor.
     4. Where penitentiaries exist, persons who have committed crimes are condemned to be imprisoned therein at labor.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chaudhry Muhammad Yaseen, leader of CDA labour union expressed his views as, 'We pay rich tributes to collective effort of PWF and LOFTF for uniting the labors of NGOs which will solve more of their issues'
70% of the labors belong to NGOs who have no rights and protection.
Chaudhry Yaseen demanded the Government, National and Provincial institutions of Pakistan to play their role in labor development, to get the labors of NGO united and to constitute for their rights and protection so that the labors can be encircled by the Social Labour Institutions and they can get their unions.
Each of 212 randomly chosen participants receive emotional support during labor from one of 11 specially trained women.
Emotional support during labor from female relatives has long characterized many cultures.
From admission through delivery, a doula stayed at her assigned patient's side to provide encouragement, to soothe and touch the woman when necessary and to explain the process of labor and what to expect next.
To begin analyzing how the structure of Midwestern agriculture and the family labor system shaped the work lives of rural women in the first half of the twentieth century, I evaluated about 30 oral histories from Wisconsin, North Dakota, and Iowa.
These oral histories confirm some of the ethnic differences that Garland noted in the sexual division of labor. However, they also reveal other factors which structured the sexual division of labor on family farms.
Because Midwestern farms were primarily dependent on family labor, the categories of difference within families, sex and age, were the basis of labor organization.
be saved as useful members of society."(30) Yet the line between "extreme poverty" and the kind of chronic privation that caused parents to rely on their children's labor was ordinarily visible to school officials only in extraordinary times.
that parents [of unschooled children] to a considerable extent are insensible to the wrong they are permitting to be inflicted upon their offspring."(38) Behind the shield of parental authority two perils to the child were sheltered, in his estimation: parental "cupidity and carelessness" and "the excessive and growing demand for the cheapest possible labor" by employers.(39) However, whereas it was granted that employers were driven by market forces to purchase labor at its lowest price, parents of unenrolled children were perceived as deviant, ignorant, or both, in depriving their own of a "fair elementary education."(40)
Historians of labor in the industrial era have made much of the application to factory work of values like punctuality, obedience to authority, discipline, and reliability: of efforts to induce workers to internalize the apprehension of time; to inure workers, first, to labor timed by the clock, and then, in E.P.