Layman

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LAYMAN, eccl. law. One who is not an ecclesiastic nor a clergyman.

References in periodicals archive ?
The fact that laywomen may have consulted certain monks around these matters, monks they not only trusted to keep their secrets but who also may have been literate and were perceived as having access to special medical knowledge, is not altogether surprising.
It is not necessary to be a bhikkhuni to realise enlightenment--some laywomen and mae chees have done it.
Using examples gleaned from her meticulous archival research, Skok analyzes the complex dynamics underlying Catholic settlement work, for example, competition with local governments and secular settlements for influence among the recent immigrant populations; simultaneous collaboration and power struggles between sisters and laywomen, or between parish priests and laywomen; an evolving sense of mission in settlements in response to the demands of clients and the pressures of the surrounding secular environment; and the begrudging clerical concessions to the athletic and social development of young women in a parish settlement system that frequently endorsed housework as the proper exercise for young women while building basketball courts and other athletic facilities for young men.
Kinnauri songs may be secular or religious; the former are composed by laywomen, the latter by nuns.
Finally, Diefendorf argues that the heroic asceticism of these laywomen resulted in more than just the founding of fifty new convents and female religious houses, as penitential piety eventually evolved into significant charitable service to the community.
In a 1990 study by the United Methodist Church, 41.8 percent of clergy women reported unwanted sexual behavior by a colleague or pastor; 17 percent of laywomen said that their own pastors had sexually harassed them.
Each lecture is designed around a theme: brahmanic and arts schools; Jaina monasteries; Jain education of nuns, laywomen, and princes; vocational education; and Jain contributions to the arts and sciences.
defines itself as "a public art collaboration which critiques mainstream culture by inserting lesbian images into a recognizably commercial context." In laywomen's terms, DAM!
In 1968, the year that Mary Daly's The Church and the Second Sex was published, I was twenty-one, and just emerging from the world of Catholic women's colleges and Thomist theology that had been formative for Daly as well.(1) When Beyond God the Father was published five years later, I had begun to spend increasing amounts of time at Grailville, a Catholic laywomen's residential community near Cincinnati.
Organized church and synagogue laywomen seldom mounted campaigns for women's ordination, and laywomen were as apt as laymen to oppose clergywomen's appointments in the churches."
Denise Despres traces responses to The Orcherd of Syon (the English version of Catherine of Siena's Dialogue), arguing that Catherine is made a contained and isolated figure for the nuns of Syon as she is for upperclass laywomen, but that Kempe (perhaps partly through her Italian experience) understood the Dialogue's linking of active and contemplative lives and struggled in her Boke to reconcile mendicant and Carthusian-led monastic piety.