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The liberalism that, according to her, emerged in the first decades of the 19th century was an intellectual and cultural one that cultivated a set of values and philosophical ideas.
Kunitsyn's commitment to individual autonomy, civil rights, and the rule of law; his unqualified acceptance of private property, the free market, and the principle of laissez-faire; and his recognition that Russian liberalism depended ultimately on the growth of civil society--all make him a direct predecessor of Russia's later, more influential liberal thinkers, in particular of Boris Chicherin (as Berest might have indicated).
To put things in order, Insole distinguishes two types of liberalism: early modern liberalism and late modern liberalism.
Insole opposes the positions held by representatives of the so-called isolationist theology (Hauerwas, Yoder), whose views lead to pacifism and separatism, as well as those espoused by the proponents of so-called radical orthodoxy (Milbank, Pickstock) who yearn after a true society and more participatory communities, claiming that liberalism is founded on ontological nihilism and violence (129).
Referring to the Hambach Fest as the "Hamburger Fest" also deflates the reader's confidence in the author's analysis of pre-March liberalism (135).
In the concluding chapter, "A future for liberalism or a liberal future?
One of the more substantial pieces is Bellamy's careful critique of Rawls's so-called political liberalism for not being political enough.
After all, is there no way of saying that liberalism is morally superior to National Socialism?
This raises the question of what, exactly, liberalism is.
Merquior provides a clear summary of the current state of debate in its historical perspective, but is less successful in addressing the tricky question of the defining characteristics of liberalism as distinct from all those other tendencies with which liberals may make common cause.
Liberalism Old and New intends, the Preface tells us, to demonstrate that liberalism, though chiefly an Anglo-Saxon artefact, received signal contributions from elsewhere in Europe.
In Ryan's account, liberalism places a high value on liberty and equality.