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27) All PIs must lie in the scope of a licenser; some (like any N) additionally require that the licenser be c-commanding and spelled out.
Clearly, not the semantic interpretation, because what matters semantically is that PIs are in the scope of their licenser, and this is true of all PIs.
9) Moreover, languages where subject PIs can precede negation (as in [22] and [23]) show that licensing is in principle available in that configuration; then, if an English PI is raised to subject position for independent reasons, as in (5a), the PI and its licenser should be in the appropriate configuration for licensing, which is apparently not the case.
29) Some lexically marked PIs must be c-commanded by their licenser at S-structure.
But they have scope over the whole sentence, not just over the subject DPs; yet the subject DPs must crucially count as licensers, otherwise there would be no C-COMMANDING licenser for the PIs and (29) would be violated.
As a first step in providing a principled reason for the generalization (27), the overtness requirement can be understood as follows: some PIs are lexically marked in such a way as to require a licenser in a particular configuration (where what counts as PI and licenser is expressed in terms of features); since this requirement applies after syntax, abstract elements do not count, because they do not appear at morphological structure.
It is correctly licensed in the source VP, but no licenser appears in the clause after but for the copied VP.
Since they do not enter morphological interpretation, there is no need for an overt licenser, or indeed for a licenser at all.
Since morphological interpretation affects in such a way the interpretive possibilities of PIs, it seems plausible to view the overtness constraint on licensers as another, perhaps indirect, consequence of morphological interpretation: some PIs need a spelled-out licenser because of their morphological makeup.
The generalization (27) has another ingredient beside overtness of the licenser: c-command holding between licenser and PI.
37) All PIs must lie in the scope of a licenser; some (like any N) additionally require a c-commanding licenser at morphological structure.
39) All PIs must lie in the scope of a licenser; some (like any N) additionally require the licenser to precede them in the string interpreted by the vocabulary.