# Line

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LINE, descents. The series of persons who have descended from a common ancestor, placed one under the other, in the order of their birth. It connects successively all the relations by blood to each other. Vide Consanguinity; Degree.

```
³ A  ³
³ s  ³                     ÚÄ    6. Tritavus, Tritavia.
³ c  ³                     ÃÄ    5. Atavus, Atavia.
³ e  ³                     ÃÄ    4. Abavus, Abavia.
³ n  ³ Great grand-   ³    ³
³ d Ä´ father, great  ÃÄ   ÃÄ    3. Proavus, Proavia.
³ i  ³ grandmother,   ³    ³
³ n  ³                     ³
³ g  ³ Grand father,  ³    ³
³    ³ grandmother    ÃÄ   ÃÄ    2. Avus, Avia.
³ l  ³                     ³
³ i  ³ Father, mother      ÃÄ    1. Pater, Mater.
³ n  ³                     ³
³ e  ³                     ³
EGO.                ÃÄ     EGO.
³ D  ³                     ³
³ e  ³                     ³
³ s  ³ Son.                ÃÄ    1. Filius.
³ c  ³ Grandson            ÃÄ    2. Nepos, Nepti.
³ e  ³ Great Grandson.     ÃÄ    3. Pronepos, Proneptis.
³ n  ³                     ÃÄ    4. Abnepos, Abneptis.
³ d  ³                     ÃÄ    5. Adnepos, Adneptis.
³ i  ³                     ÃÄ    6. Trinepos, Trineptis.
³ n  ³
³ g  ³
³    ³
³ L  ³
³ i  ³
³ n  ³
³ e  ³
```

2. The line is either direct or collateral. The direct line is composed of all the persons who are descended from each other. If, in the direct line, any one person is assumed the propositus, in order to count from him upwards and downwards, the line will be divided into two parts, the ascending and descending lines. The ascending line is that, which counting from the propositus, ascends to his ancestors, to his father, grandfather, great-grandfather, &c. The descending line, is that which, counting from the same person, descends to his children, grandchildren, great-grand-children, &c. The preceding table is an example.
3. The collateral line considered by itself, and in relation to the common ancestor, is a direct line; it becomes collateral when placed along side of another line below the common ancestor, in whom both lines unite for example:
```                      Common ancestor.
O
ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿
³                               ³
o                               o
³                               ³
o                               o
Direct ³                               ³ Collateral
line. o                               o line.
³                               ³
o                               o
³                               ³
o                               o
³                               ³
O                               o
Ego.
```

4. These two lines are independent of each other; they have no connexion, except by their union in the person of the common ancestor. This reunion is what forms the relation among the persons composing the two lines.
5. A line is also paternal or maternal. In the examination of a person's ascending line, the line ascends first to his father, next to his paternal grandfather, his paternal great-grandfather, &c. so on from father to father; this is called the paternal line. Another line will be found to ascend from the same person to his mother, his maternal grandmother, and so from mother to mother; this is the maternal line. These lines, however, do not take in all the ascendants, there are many others who must be imagined. The number of ascendants is double at each degree, as is shown by the following table:
```                                       ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
³
ÚÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
³          ³
³          ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
³
ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄ´
³      ³
F  ³      ³          ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
a  ³      ³          ³
t  ³      ÀÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
h  ³                 ³
e  ³                 ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
r  ³
ÚÄÄOÄÄ´
³     ³
P  ³   O ³                 ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
a  ³   t ³                 ³
t  ³   h ³      ÚÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
e  ³   e ³      ³          ³
r  ³   r ³      ³          ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
n  ³     ³      ³
a  ³   L ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄ´
l  ³   i        ³
³   n        ³          ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
L  ³   e        ³          ³
i  ³            ÀÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
n  ³                       ³
e  ³                       ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
³
Ego.   OÄÄÄÄÄ´
³
M  ³                       ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
a  ³                       ³
t  ³            ÚÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
e  ³            ³          ³
r  ³   O        ³          ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
n  ³   t        ³
a  ³   h  ÚÄÄÄÄÄ´
l  ³   e  ³     ³
³   r  ³     ³          ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
l  ³      ³     ³          ³
i  ³   l  ³     ÀÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
n  ³   i  ³                ³
e  ³   n  ³                ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
³   e  ³
ÀÄÄÄoÄÄ´
³
M  ³                ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
o  ³                ³
t  ³     ÚÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
h  ³     ³          ³
e  ³     ³          ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
r  ³     ³
ÀÄÄÄÄÄ´
³
³          ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
³          ³
ÀÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
³
ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
```

Vide 2 Bl. Com. 200, b. 2, c. 14; Poth. Des Successions, ch. 1, art. 3, Sec. 2; and article Ascendants.

LINE, measures. A line is a lineal measure containing the one twelfth part of a on inch.

LINE, estates. The division between two estates. Limit; border; boundary.
2. When a line is mentioned in a deed as ending at a particular monument, (q.v.) it is to be extended in the direction called for, without regard to distance, until it reach the boundary. 1 Taylor, 110, 303 2 Hawks, 219; 3 Hawks, 21; 2 Taylor, 1. And a marked line is to be adhered to although it depart from the course. 7 Wheat. 7; 2 Overt. 304; 3 Call, 239; 7 Monr. 333; 2 Bibb, 261; 4 Bibb, 503; 4 Monr. 29; see further, 2 Dana, 2; 6 Wend. 467; 1 Bibb, 466; 1 Marsh. 382; 3 Marsh. 382; 3 Murph. 82; 13 Pick. 145; 13 Wend. 300; 5 J. J. Marsh. 587.
3. Where a number of persons settle simultaneously or at short intervals in the same neighborhood, and their tracts, if extended in certain directions, would overlap each other, the settlers sometimes by agreement determine upon dividing lines, which are called consentible lines. These lines, when fairly agreed upon, have been sanctioned by the courts; and such agreements are conclusive upon all persons claiming under the parties to them with notice, but not upon bona fide purchasers for a valuable consideration without notice, actual or constructive. 5 S. & R. 273; 9 W. & S. 66; 3 S & R. 323; 5 Binn. 129; 10 Watts, 324; 17 S. &. R. 57; Jones, L. 0. T.
4. Lines fixed by compact between nations are binding on their citizens and subjects. 11 Pet. 209; 1 Overt. 269; 1 Ves. sen., Rep. 450; 1 Atk. R. 2; 1 Ch. Cas. 85; 1 P. Wms. 723727; 2 Atk. R. 592; 1 Vern. 48; 1 Ves. 19; 2 Ves. 284; 3 S. & R. 331.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
The ions are constrained to move along the lines of force created by Jupiter's powerful magnetic field.
This depends on the direction of Earth's magnetic field, lines of force that surround the planet.
One could draw imaginary lines in the field, connecting all points of equal magnetic intensity, and call these lines of force. Around a wire with a current flowing through it, the lines of force were concentric circles, and it was this that caused the circular movement.
Maloberti works by constructing an image in space, a painting in three dimensions orchestrated with great precision through the arrangement of b odies and the articulation of shapes, colors, and lines of force: This is how one came to see those fifteen dark-skinned men and the vivid red blotch of the flowers or the girl performer in the shadowy room and the brilliant red band that kept her from falling as abstract signs.

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