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(Ancestry), noun arrangement, avenue, beat, birth, blood, bloodline, channel, communication, course, derivation, descent, direction, dispatch, drift, epistle, stock, genealogy, heredity, idea, lane, letter, lineage, method, missive, nature, note, origin, parentage, path, progeny, race, railroad, road, route, scheme, sort, succession, system, tendency, track, trail, transportation, way
Associated concepts: descendant, direct line, maternal line, paternal line


(Business), noun activity, airline, avocation, bus line, calling, career, chain, employment, livelihood, occupation, profession, pursuit, specialization, specialty, stock in trade, undertaking, vocation, work
See also: ancestry, birth, blood, bloodline, business, calling, career, chain, course, derivation, descent, direction, employment, family, lineage, merchandise, occupation, origin, parentage, policy, polity, post, posterity, progeny, pursuit, race, range, stock in trade, trade, work

LINE, descents. The series of persons who have descended from a common ancestor, placed one under the other, in the order of their birth. It connects successively all the relations by blood to each other. Vide Consanguinity; Degree.

³ A  ³
³ s  ³                     ÚÄ    6. Tritavus, Tritavia.
³ c  ³                     ÃÄ    5. Atavus, Atavia.
³ e  ³                     ÃÄ    4. Abavus, Abavia.
³ n  ³ Great grand-   ³    ³
³ d Ä´ father, great  ÃÄ   ÃÄ    3. Proavus, Proavia.
³ i  ³ grandmother,   ³    ³
³ n  ³                     ³
³ g  ³ Grand father,  ³    ³
³    ³ grandmother    ÃÄ   ÃÄ    2. Avus, Avia.
³ l  ³                     ³
³ i  ³ Father, mother      ÃÄ    1. Pater, Mater.
³ n  ³                     ³
³ e  ³                     ³

     EGO. ÃÄ EGO. ³ D ³ ³ ³ e ³ ³ ³ s ³ Son. ÃÄ 1. Filius. ³ c ³ Grandson ÃÄ 2. Nepos, Nepti. ³ e ³ Great Grandson. ÃÄ 3. Pronepos, Proneptis. ³ n ³ ÃÄ 4. Abnepos, Abneptis. ³ d ³ ÃÄ 5. Adnepos, Adneptis. ³ i ³ ÃÄ 6. Trinepos, Trineptis. ³ n ³ ³ g ³ ³ ³ ³ L ³ ³ i ³ ³ n ³ ³ e ³

     2. The line is either direct or collateral. The direct line is composed of all the persons who are descended from each other. If, in the direct line, any one person is assumed the propositus, in order to count from him upwards and downwards, the line will be divided into two parts, the ascending and descending lines. The ascending line is that, which counting from the propositus, ascends to his ancestors, to his father, grandfather, great-grandfather, &c. The descending line, is that which, counting from the same person, descends to his children, grandchildren, great-grand-children, &c. The preceding table is an example.
     3. The collateral line considered by itself, and in relation to the common ancestor, is a direct line; it becomes collateral when placed along side of another line below the common ancestor, in whom both lines unite for example:

     Common ancestor.
     ³ ³
     o o
     ³ ³
     o o
     Direct ³ ³ Collateral
     line. o o line.
     ³ ³
     o o
     ³ ³
     o o
     ³ ³
     O o

     4. These two lines are independent of each other; they have no connexion, except by their union in the person of the common ancestor. This reunion is what forms the relation among the persons composing the two lines.
     5. A line is also paternal or maternal. In the examination of a person's ascending line, the line ascends first to his father, next to his paternal grandfather, his paternal great-grandfather, &c. so on from father to father; this is called the paternal line. Another line will be found to ascend from the same person to his mother, his maternal grandmother, and so from mother to mother; this is the maternal line. These lines, however, do not take in all the ascendants, there are many others who must be imagined. The number of ascendants is double at each degree, as is shown by the following table:

     ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     ³ ³
     ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
     ³ ³
     F ³ ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     a ³ ³ ³
     t ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
     h ³ ³
     e ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
     r ³
     ³ ³
     P ³ O ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     a ³ t ³ ³
     t ³ h ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
     e ³ e ³ ³ ³
     r ³ r ³ ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
     n ³ ³ ³
     a ³ L ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄ´
     l ³ i ³
     ³ n ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     L ³ e ³ ³
     i ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
     n ³ ³
     e ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
     ³ Ego. OÄÄÄÄÄ´
     M ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     a ³ ³
     t ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
     e ³ ³ ³
     r ³ O ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
     n ³ t ³
     a ³ h ÚÄÄÄÄÄ´
     l ³ e ³ ³
     ³ r ³ ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     l ³ ³ ³ ³
     i ³ l ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
     n ³ i ³ ³
     e ³ n ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
     ³ e ³
     M ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     o ³ ³
     t ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄoÄÄÄÄ´
     h ³ ³ ³
     e ³ ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o
     r ³ ³
     ³ ÚÄÄÄÄÄ o
     ³ ³
     ÀÄÄÄÄÄ o

     Vide 2 Bl. Com. 200, b. 2, c. 14; Poth. Des Successions, ch. 1, art. 3, Sec. 2; and article Ascendants.

LINE, measures. A line is a lineal measure containing the one twelfth part of a on inch.

LINE, estates. The division between two estates. Limit; border; boundary.
     2. When a line is mentioned in a deed as ending at a particular monument, (q.v.) it is to be extended in the direction called for, without regard to distance, until it reach the boundary. 1 Taylor, 110, 303 2 Hawks, 219; 3 Hawks, 21; 2 Taylor, 1. And a marked line is to be adhered to although it depart from the course. 7 Wheat. 7; 2 Overt. 304; 3 Call, 239; 7 Monr. 333; 2 Bibb, 261; 4 Bibb, 503; 4 Monr. 29; see further, 2 Dana, 2; 6 Wend. 467; 1 Bibb, 466; 1 Marsh. 382; 3 Marsh. 382; 3 Murph. 82; 13 Pick. 145; 13 Wend. 300; 5 J. J. Marsh. 587.
     3. Where a number of persons settle simultaneously or at short intervals in the same neighborhood, and their tracts, if extended in certain directions, would overlap each other, the settlers sometimes by agreement determine upon dividing lines, which are called consentible lines. These lines, when fairly agreed upon, have been sanctioned by the courts; and such agreements are conclusive upon all persons claiming under the parties to them with notice, but not upon bona fide purchasers for a valuable consideration without notice, actual or constructive. 5 S. & R. 273; 9 W. & S. 66; 3 S & R. 323; 5 Binn. 129; 10 Watts, 324; 17 S. &. R. 57; Jones, L. 0. T.
     4. Lines fixed by compact between nations are binding on their citizens and subjects. 11 Pet. 209; 1 Overt. 269; 1 Ves. sen., Rep. 450; 1 Atk. R. 2; 1 Ch. Cas. 85; 1 P. Wms. 723727; 2 Atk. R. 592; 1 Vern. 48; 1 Ves. 19; 2 Ves. 284; 3 S. & R. 331.

References in periodicals archive ?
9% Si will reduce a silica lining when melting at 2775F (1524C) because the melt temperature is above the equilibrium temperature of 2584F (1418C).
Although the entire lining is exposed to molten iron at temperatures above the equilibrium temperature during the latter stages of the melt, only the bottom portion of the lining wears.
The integration of MBS with the custom applications that SCG is developing for Rhino Linings will provide vital IT systems that streamline our processes from manufacturing to fulfillment and create exceptional reporting tools for our channel partners," said Jeff Perry, IT manager for Rhino Linings.
Even though the foundry eventually changed its carbon raiser, the major goal of the department was to further extend the life of the lining - instead of just solving the problem, they wanted to better the operation.
By changing the carbon raiser and patching the lining, the foundry was able to boost melt efficiency to beyond what was experienced in the past, reducing man-hours spent in changing the lining and increasing tons melted per lining campaign.
failure to monitor normal lining wear and allowing the lining to become too thin;
company to offer Gore-Tex linings in its children's line of rugged casual products.
The life of an inductor lined with these refractories was a function of how long it took the inductor lining to wear or to build-up.
A secondary cause for horizontal cracking/finning is refractory lining hang-up, which occurs near the spout of coreless induction furnaces.
Therefore, because the refractories that comprise a channel induction furnace lining vary greatly in density and chemistry, it is obvious that they will differ widely relative to thermal conductivity.
And, often, when you patch a castable refractory you do not get a good bond to the existing lining.