Logarithms can then be used to 'undo' their respective exponential functions as in Figure 8.

Results show that there is no significant meaning between

logarithm average, value-added

logarithm and price relation to benefit

logarithm.

Although very useful and conceptually elegant, it turns out that the species [[summation].sub.n:even][W.sub.n] and [[summation].sub.n:odd] [W.sub.n] in Joyal's expression for the combinatorial

logarithm have plenty of subspecies in common.

[s.sub.t+k] =

logarithm of spot exchange rate at time t + k, [[eta].sub.t+k] = white-noise error term.

Firm R&D intensity equals R&D expenditures divided by total assets in one year; firm size is the

logarithm of total assets; and we proxy for corporate governance with Gindex from the IRRC database.

The usefulness of the

logarithm is its ability to represent numerical excesses in comprehensible terms.

If [theta] is not a generator, the notion of the discrete

logarithm of g to the base 6 is extended to be the smallest positive integer x, such that g = [[theta].sup.x], if it exists.

We generated the output for the estimated regression equation for the natural

logarithm of PPG, which indicated .343x + .344 [Table 6].

From (1), we have n = [ln x/ln n] + [n/ln n] + O(1) and take

logarithm on both sides, we easily get the main term of ln n, that is: ln n = ln ln x + O(ln ln ln x).

A high serum HBV DNA level (6.0

logarithm of the genome equivalent per mL [LGE/mL] or higher) independently conferred a 308% increase in the relative risk of developing HCC, compared with a low HBV DNA level (lower than 6.0 LGE/mL).

Weber's Law of psychophysics has been succinctly phrased by Gustav Fechner as "the sensation increases proportional as the

logarithm of the stimulus intensity." Do we have here an inversion of this rule?

Figure 2 was obtained by (i) first applying a lowess smooth function (9) to the observed case counts, (ii) applying least squares linear fit of the

logarithm of the smoothed case counts against time, and (iii) transforming the fitted line back to the original scale.