Usefulness of the assessment of discharge accumulation in the lower airways
and tracheal septum thickening in the differential diagnosis of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and inflammatory airway diseases (IAD) in the horse.
innate immunity) within the lower airways
(for reviews, see Joshi and Guidot 2007; Mehta and Guidot 2012).
This finding suggests the potential for post-nasal lower airway
Auzary and colleagues (6) reported on five cases of pregnancy with WG and put forward that the differential diagnosis of WG from preeclampsia should be made by the absence of hypertension (which is rare in a WG flare), the presence of extra-renal manifestations, especially upper and lower airways
, and positive ANCA titers.
Radiography is most commonly the initial modality for the evaluation of upper and lower airway
abnormalities in the pediatric patient and may be followed by CT studies to further evaluate inflammatory processes and extent of trauma.
This study ("Subclinical airway inflammation despite high-dose oral corticosteroid therapy in cats with lower airway
disease," in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 2011) is a retrospective evaluation of 10 cats meeting the appropriate criteria for the study.
Major Finding: On bronchoscopic evaluation of children diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorders, all had doubled branches in the lower airway
30) These authors also found a correlation between abnormal spirometry results and lower airway
symptoms such as dyspnea, but not between abnormal spirometry results and upper airway symptoms such as cough.
05 ) in upper and lower airway
space between the two groups, showing that in class II high angle cases, both upper and lower airway
space is narrow than in low angle cases.
Ciliated epithelial cells line the upper and lower airways
to catch particles and remove them from the airway.
A microscopic examination of tissues throughout the airways revealed that the virus caused damage primarily to the upper airway -- the trachea and bronchial tubes a[euro]"- but tissue damage in the lower airway
, including deep in the lungs, was present as well.
Adverse outcomes included short-term changes in oxygenation, heart rate, blood pressure, airway resistance and dyspnea, as well as the potential for lower airway