From the perspective of lawyers and litigants, law in practice is, most of the time, what lower courts
make it; whether a higher court might one day repudiate a statement as dictum makes little difference if at the moment, the statement is tantamount to binding precedent.
The Supreme Court on Monday quashed lower court
rulings that found a former chairman of an Osaka-based meatpacking company guilty of defrauding the government by abusing a state subsidy program, sending the case back to the Osaka High Court to revise the defendant's punishment.
The employees of the lower courts
were demanding increase in their salaries and allowances so that they were equal to that of the Sindh High Court staff.
The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the lower court
's decision to allow the use of the postwarning jailhouse statement, concluding that there was no interrogation at Fellers' residence.
circuit court of appeals upheld a lower court
's ruling that gay men and lesbians in Florida could not adopt children.
The lower court
ruled that once a binder is signed the insurance contract is closed and the binder is the same as the regular contract.
Sjahril was found guilty by the lower court
of allowing Bank Bali to pay a fee of 546 billion rupiah to a company linked to the Golkar party, the political vehicle of President Suharto during his 32 years in power that ended in 1998.
When an improper or undesirable decision fell under higher-court scrutiny, Supreme Court judges made sure to bring lower courts
A lower court
had struck down the state's use of the religious phrase, but the full panel disagreed, saying the expression was akin to the use of "In God We Trust" as the national motto.
Lawyers on both sides said the justices appear to view the case as a way to lay down guidelines before lower courts
decide a flurry of free-lance rights cases.
Congress and presidents attempt to control agencies, upper levels of bureaucracies attempt to control lower levels, and higher courts strive to control lower courts
. With incomplete information about their subordinates' decisions and knowledge, superiors in rule-based hierarchies often employ some form of auditing.
Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the ruling and remanded the case to the lower court
, directing parties to "flesh out" contentions that the survey system violated providers' due process rights.