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There are three main ways in which lustration has been defended, as identified by Williams et al.
The interplay of these two approaches makes the debate on lustration and the application of specific regulations a complex process, understood by Schwartz as a "fact of life in most Central and Eastern Europe" (1994: 461).
After scrutinizing the primary arguments surrounding the lustration debate and its most relevant aspects, the following section sets out to briefly describe the comparative bases for analyzing two case studies, before turning to the legislative processes and their implications in Romania and Poland.
The systematic comparison of empirical facts and conceptual ideas is used to explain the phenomenon of late lustration in Romania and Poland after 2006, relying on a thorough qualitative analysis of the lustration initiatives in the two countries and their effects.
These two cases were selected for the present analysis for three reasons: (1) the equal time-span for settling accounts with the past and the same year for embarking on second wave lustration initiatives (68); (2) the type of relationship they had with Moscow before 1989, which allowed them to develop their own secret services: the Sluzba Bezpieczenstwa (SB) in Poland and the Securitate in Romania (69); and (3) the different ends of the spectrum they belong to in what concerns the adoption of lustration policies, which allows for meaningful cross-national comparison.
Lustration before 2006 and after: The Romanian Case
16) One of my guiding ideas for determining principles to evaluate the justice of lustration is, following Walzer, a concern for the direction and the distribution of benefits that an occupation provides.
In theoretical terms, it is increasingly evident that the institution of jus post bellum, of which lustration is one part, is a constitutive--although hitherto neglected--element of the institution of jus ad bellum.
It probes the ethics of lustration in the context of de-Baathification, as the municipal and international administration of lustration in postwar Iraq has become known under the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).
19) The dynamics of lustration under occupation can--schematically--be described as follows.
Lustration confronts us with one of the most profound ethical dilemmas of public policy--the accommodation of victors and vanquished in a decent society.
These principles form the foundation for an ethics of lustration, which I consider a constitutive institution of jus post bellum.