This time there was not mass exclusion from the city, but there was disenfranchisement from the major magistracies
of republican government.
At that time, it was always possible for a higher magistrate who yields power to exercise this power along with the other magistrates because he still would retain it among all the temporal and entrusted magistracies
who would exercise the entrusted jurisdiction not in their name but in the name of the one who yielded the power.
Then there was state payment - to compensate members of the boule, magistracies
and juries, to counter apathy and boost the size and representativeness of assembly turnouts, regular attenders being largely urban residents within easy walking distance of the Pynx.
The sale of magistracies
began in the 1670s, when the government of the last Habsburg king, Charles II, introduced the measure in a desperate attempt to tap all possible sources of revenue.
These appointments were an early example of the Dukes' gradual departure from the Florentine tradition of filling key judicial and administrative magistracies
with men serving short and rotating terms by a process of extraction overseen by the office of the Tratte.
Renaissance Italian judicial systems have been described from many angles: law codes, magistracies
, criminals, punishments, and extra-judicial settlements.
were created for the purpose of supervising the judicial, fiscal, and economic affairs of the mainland, yet, as Ferraro emphasizes, the pragmatic Venetian rulers always understood and acted upon the principle that their hegemony "could only rest on collaboration with local powers" (18).
Outside foreign affairs, above all in giving directions both to dependent cities and Florentine magistracies
on behalf of petitioners, Lorenzo more or less has his own way in these 115 letters, as when he intervenes with the appropriate officials at the request of Arezzo to have this favorite Medici city made exempt from a new tax (V, 251-2).
Two concluding chapters describe the executive magistracies
that possessed certain judicial powers; and a sampling of court cases for the years 1425-28, from which the author draws conclusions about "philosophies of prosecution and profiles of criminality.