magistrate

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Magistrate

Any individual who has the power of a public civil officer or inferior judicial officer, such as a Justice of the Peace.

The various state judicial systems provide for judicial officers who are often called magistrates, justices of the peace, or police justices. The authority of these officials is restricted by statute, and jurisdiction is commonly limited to the county in which the official presides. The position may be elected or appointed, depending on the governing state statute. The exact role of the official varies by state; it may include handling hearings regarding violations of motor vehicle codes or breaches of the peace, presiding over criminal preliminary hearings, officiating marriages, and dispensing civil actions involving small sums of money.

U.S. magistrates are judicial officers appointed by the judges of federal district courts pursuant to the United States Magistrates Act (28 U.S.C.A. §§ 631 et seq.), enacted in 1968. This act was designed to reduce the workload of federal courts by replacing the old system of U.S. commissioners with a new system of U.S. magistrates. U.S. magistrates can perform more judicial functions than could U.S. commissioners. Federal magistrates may be assigned some, but not all, of the duties of a federal judge. They may serve as special masters (persons appointed by the court to carry out a particular judicial function on behalf of the court), supervise pretrial or discovery proceedings, and provide preliminary consideration of petitions for postconviction relief. U.S. magistrates generally may not decide motions to dismiss or motions for Summary Judgment, because these motions involve ultimate decision making, a responsibility and duty of the federal courts. However, if all the parties to a case agree, a federal magistrate may decide such motions and may even conduct a civil or misdemeanor criminal trial. Federal magistrates are not permitted to preside over felony trials or over jury selection in felony cases.

magistrate

n. 1) a generic term for any judge of a court, or anyone officially performing a judge's functions. 2) In a few states, an officer of the court at the lowest level which hears small claims lawsuits, serves as a judge for charges of minor crimes, and/or conducts preliminary hearings in criminal cases to determine if there is enough evidence presented by the prosecution to hold the accused for trial. 3) in Federal Courts, an official who conducts routine hearings assigned by the federal judges, including preliminary hearings in criminal cases. (See: judge, justice of the peace, preliminary hearing)

magistrate

an inferior judge. In England and Scotland, they are primarily lay posts filled by ordinary members of the public. Stipendiary magistrates are qualified lawyers who hold the post in the busiest courts.

MAGISTRATE, mun. law. A public civil officer, invested with some part of the legislative, executive, or judicial power given by the constitution. In a narrower sense this term includes only inferior judicial officers, as justices of the peace.
     2. The president of the United States is the chief magistrate of this nation; the governors are the chief magistrates of their respective states.
     3. It is the duty of all magistrates to exercise the power, vested in them for the good of the people, according to law, and with zeal and fidelity. A neglect on the part of a magistrate to exercise the functions of his office, when required by law, is a misdemeanor. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 144; Ayl. Pand. tit. 22; Dig. 30, 16, 57; Merl. Rep. h.t.; 13 Pick. R. 523.

References in periodicals archive ?
(46) Tel que relate dans le Rapport au Conseil canadien de la magistrature du dispositions du paragraphe 63(1) de la Loi sur les juges pour mener une enquete publique relativement a la conduite de M.
Introduction : The EcoleNationaled Administrationet de Magistrature (ENAM) was created in 1963 by the government as the lead institution in the design and coordination of training and professional development activities for civil servants.
Le president de la Republique, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, a recu a l'occasion de sa reelection a la magistrature supreme du pays, un message de felicitations de Kim Yong-nam, president du presidium de l'Assemblee populaire supreme de la Republique democratique et populaire de Coree.
L'ordre des avocats a [beaucoup moins que] rejete et denonce la decision de deferer les 5 avocats devant le juge d'instruction et les charges retenues contre eux sans motif legal [beaucoup plus grand que], appelant les structures de tutelle a assumer leurs responsabilites et a mettre la magistrature a l'abri de toute instrumentalisation.
La Presidence de la Republique a affirme son attachement a l'independance de la magistrature et au principe de separation des pouvoirs, jugeant necessaire de soumettre le projet de loi sur le pouvoir judiciaire aux magistrats avant de le promulguer.
Joint, dimanche, par l'Agence TAP, Imed Khaskhoussi a explique que ce report intervient en raison du grand nombre des demandes de mutation, de promotion et d'acces a un poste de fonction parvenues au Conseil superieur de la magistrature. "Toutes ces demandes, qui sont au nombre de 1500, doivent etre examinees au cas par cas", a-t-il explique.
L'Observatoire tunisien de l'independance de la magistrature, poursuit ses efforts pour que la crise soit prenne fin .
Des sources proches du parti de la Liberte et de la Justice, branche politique des Freres musulmans, ont ajoute que le president a l'intention de modifier ladite loi et que les amendements visent a accorder le pouvoir de controle judiciaire au Conseil superieur de la magistrature, en developpant de nouvelles procedures pour la nomination des juges en fonction de leur "efficacite", de maniere a compenser une clause tres controversee qui permettrait de reduire l'age de la retraite des juges de 70 a 60.
Compose de 45 membres, le CSM comporte quatre organes, a savoir le Conseil de l'ordre judiciaire, le Conseil de l'ordre administratif, le Conseil de l'ordre financier et l'Assemblee generale qui regroupe les membres des trois conseils de la magistrature.
Hier, le Conseil de la Magistrature a affiche son indignation vis-a-vis des incidents facheux survenus vendredi en face du Palais de la Justice, considerant que cette attaque contre les magistrats est une prejudice intolerable portee a l'encontre des juges, d'autant plus que ces manifs du vendredi avaient pour slogan "L'epuration de la Magistrature".
Mohamed Najem Gharsallai a ete designe procureur general pres la Cour de cassation, a annonce mercredi le porte-parole officiel du Conseil superieur de ma magistrature, Imed Khaskhousi, cite par [beaucoup moins que]Khadha Newss[beaucoup plus grand que].
Certes, le juge n'a d'allegeance qu'a la loi, et c'est un principe intangible, mais il est difficile de voir un magistrat officier dans la posture de juge et partie, s'agissant, faut-il le preciser, du volet organisation de la justice, etant etabli, a ce propos, que le fonctionnement de la justice est du ressort exclusif de la magistrature. Cette dichotomie a valeur de principe fondamental dans les systemes judiciaires, notamment dans les pays democratiques, et personne n'y oserait la contester ni la remettre en question.