Does incomplete recovery from first lifetime major depressive episode
herald a chronic course of illness?
In the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), to be diagnosed with major depressive episode
, one must meet at least five of the following nine criteria: (a) feeling sad or depressed, (b) anhedonia, (c) decreased appetite or weight loss, (d) sleeping more or less than normal, (e) psychomotor retardation, (f) loss of energy, (g) feeling worthless or guilty, (h) inability to think or concentrate, and (i) suicidality.
Univariate analyses demonstrated that the greatest risk for having a major depressive episode
occurred when women were postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.
The Test-Retest Levels of Agreement between First Rater and Second Rater for Current Major Depressive Episode
First rater Second rater Depression No depression Depression 22 12 No depression 8 122 Simple agreement rates 87.
While rates of depression were higher among unemployed and part-time workers, slightly more than half of the adults who reported major depressive episodes
in the past year were employed on a full-time basis.
13) If a patient has had 1 or more major depressive episodes
and l or more hypomanic episodes but no mixed or manic episodes, the diagnosis is bipolar II disorder.
The most common sleep disturbance associated with a major depressive episode
is insomnia; less frequently, individuals present with hypersomnia (APA, 2000a).
This proposed condition is similar to that of bipolar II disorder and requires at least 1 major depressive episode
but also requires "at least 2 lifetime episodes of hypomanic periods that involve the required criterion symptoms .
Type of Professional Seen Among Adults Aged 18 or Older With a Major Depressive Episode
Who Received Treatment in the Past Year: 2012" (SAMHSA Fig.
In any given year, 5-7% of the world's population experiences a major depressive episode
, and one in six people will at some point suffer from the disease.
In fact, caring for relatives with bipolar disorder doubles the risk of recurrence of a major depressive episode
in those with a preexisting diagnosis of major depressive disorder.
Our research indicates that a mother's lack of high school education has a robust impact on her child's risk of major depressive episode
in early adulthood," said Amelie Quesnel-Vallee, senior author of the study.