There were different masculinities
, there were hierarchical relationships, there was contestation, and there were dilemmas about how hegemony was maintained in changing economic circumstances.
"Entre dois mundos" projects what might be called a changing mood of masculinity in Brazil, that is, a growing resistance to normative hegemonic forms of masculinity that have depended upon the exclusion and oppression of women and subordinate masculinities
. Kaelin Alexander, a North American critic of gender and masculinity reminds us that masculinity "is in fact most apparent from its margins; when it is embodied, practiced, and desired by subjects whose relationship to masculinity mark their performances of it as intriguing, troubling, irrelevant, hyper-stylized, unconvincing, more-than-real, counter-intuitive, or any other emotional shorthand for 'mixed up'" (1).
"Which is, in itself, contributing to the perpetual flux of masculinities
men must contend with in modern times."
1), I argue that her work has much to offer the critical study of men and masculinities
precisely because of the way she frames and thinks about men and masculinities
in the popular romance novel.
From Connell's (1987) work, it is clear that hegemonic masculinity is an ideal form or a model of masculinity that is socially and historically constructed in relation to subordinated masculinities
and in relation to femininities.
It has been suggested that hegemonic masculinity has not existed in isolation (Allen, 2007), and that it is constructed, not only in relation to femininity, but also in relation to subordinated and marginalised masculinities
ZW and RM are identifiable as an example of both producing and reproducing what Warner and Connell maintain are heteronormative, hegemonic masculinities
(Connell, 'The Social Organisation of Masculinity' 30; Warner, 42) and lend themselves to feminist critiques on their forms of sexual objectification of women as found in similar magazines (e.g.
The second section investigates multiple masculinities
throughout the regions of Mexico from the "Golden Age" of cinema during the early twentieth century up to the charros gays or "gay cowboys" of the early 2000s.
Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity (first outlined in Carrigan, Connell & Lee) has arguably been the most influential paradigm in masculinity studies, with its emphasis on the normative core among multiple masculinities
competing in a dynamic social and discursive universe.
While various critics have, of course, turned to the field of nineteenth-century theatre and performance to discover the rich medley of masculinities
animating it, Acts of Manhood offers the first book-length analysis of how central the construction of masculinity was to the success of popular theatre in the first half of the nineteenth century.
and Other Hopeless Causes at an All-Boys Catholic School