Caution is suggested when choosing the breeding method for the significant and pronounced maternal effect
. We recommend using the 08 and 09 parents for improving intrapopulation breeding programs.
The ecological and evolutionary importance of maternal effects
in the sea.
The genetic variances due to direct and maternal effects
were somewhat similar.
Our study thus demonstrates that maternal effects
can have a previously unrecognized role in influencing species interactions within communities, and that we should consider these maternal effects
when predicting the ecological and evolutionary consequences of changing species distributions,
In a classic study of maternal effects
in mice, Falconer (1955, 1965) found that large mothers had many small young.
Including additive maternal effect
with no maternal environmental effects in model 3 resulted in smaller s2A and h2D compared to those estimated in models 1 and 2.
Such influences are referred to as maternal effects
are usually detected in viability and growth rates during early developmental stages (Schwabl 1996, Eising et al.
Considering the drastic effects of oviductal cells on numerous biological processes, such as sperm capacitation, fertilization and early embryonic development, and the importance of adequate storage and expression of oocyte-specific maternal effect
genes, we designed the present study was to evaluate the effects of oviductal cell monolayer and its conditioned medium during IVF on subsequent embryonic development and the relative abundance of Zar1 transcript in ovine zygote.
(general reciprocal) is the effect of maternal genotype or tissue on a trait in its offspring, whereas nonmaternal effect (specific reciprocal) is the effect of extranuclear genetic factors or interaction between nuclear and plasma genes (Kang et al., 1999; Zhang and Kang, 1997).
This novel line contained free X and Y-chromosomes that were completely South African in origin, autosomes and maternal effects
that were largely South African in origin, and cytoplasms that fully retained their original 2119 genetic identity [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED].
The expression of a maternal effect
of iron and zinc concentrations in common bean seeds depends on the evaluated gene pool and the tested hybrid combination (Jost, Ribeiro, Cerutti, Poersch, & Maziero, 2009; Rosa et al., 2010; Silva, Abreu, & Ramalho, 2013; Mukamuhirwa, Tusiime, & Mukankusi, 2015; Possobom, Ribeiro, Domingues, & Casagrande, 2015).