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AVERAGE. A term used in commerce to signify a contribution made by the owners of the ship, freight and goods, on board, in proportion to their respective interests, towards any particular loss or expense sustained for the general safety of the ship and cargo; to the end that the particular loser may not be a greater sufferer than the owner of the ship and the other owners of goods on board. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7; Code de Com. art. 397; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 407; Poth. Aver. art. Prel.
     2. Average is called general or gross average, because it falls generally upon the whole or gross amount of the ship, freight and cargo; and also to distinguish it from what is often though improperly termed particular average, but which in truth means a particular or partial, and not a general loss; or has no affinity to average properly so called. Besides these there are other small charges, called petty or accustomed averages; such as pilotage, towage, light-money, beaconage, anchorage, bridge toll, quarantine, river charges, signals, instructions, castle money, pier money, digging the ship out of the ice, and the like.
     3. A contribution upon general average can only be claimed in cases where, upon as much deliberate on and consultation between the captain and his officers as the occasion will admit of, it appears that the sacrifice at the time it was made, was absolutely and indispensably necessary for the preservation of the ship and cargo. To entitle the owner of the goods to an average contribution, the loss must evidently conduce to the preservation of the ship and the rest of the cargo; and it must appear that the ship and the rest of the cargo were in fact saved. Show. Ca. Parl. 20. See generally Code de Com. tit. 11 and 12; Park, Ins. c. 6; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7 4 Mass. 548; 6 Mass. 125; 8 Mass. 467; 1 Caines' R. 196; 4 Dall. 459; 2 Binn. 547 4 Binn. 513; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 237, in note; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 229 3 Johns. Cas. 178; 1 Caines' R. 43; 2 Caines' R. 263; Id. 274; 8 Johns. R. 237, 2d edit 9 Johns. R. 9; 11 Johns. R 315 1 Caines' R. 573; 7 Johns R. 412; Wesk. Ins. tit. Average; 2 Barn. & Crest. 811 1 Rob. Adlm. Rep. 293; 2 New Rep. 378 18 Ves. 187; Lex. Mer. Armer. ch. 9; Bac Abr. Merchant, F; Vin. Abr. Contribution and' Average; Stev. on Av.; Ben. on Av.

References in periodicals archive ?
Cephalometric radiography has been used vastly in the field of orthodontics to develop the mean values for teeth, skeletal apparatus and soft tissue positions.4
There was no statistically significant difference in mean values of urea between these three groups (F0 = 1.41, F = 19.5, F0 < F, p > 0.05).
The experimental group (C) showed highest mean values (45.497) followed by (B) with (43.029) mean value while the lowest mean value was for the control group (A) with (41.329) as shown in figure 10 and table 8.
For thickness swelling after 2 h (TS2h) and 24 h (TS24h) of water immersion, the highest mean values were obtained for the OSB manufactured with Pinus sp.
In semihumid regions, as shown in Figure 6, the PUE of the Mixed Coniferous and Broadleaf Forest is the highest, with an average of the multiyear mean value of 7.69 x [10.sup.-1]gC ?m 2-mm 1; this is significantly higher than the national average, especially in a small number of regions in eastern Heilongjiang and northeastern Jilin.
Mean value of serum Aspartate transaminase (AST) in affected animals before treatment was significantly higher (p[less than or equal to]0.05) than mean value of healthy animals and post-treatment value of affected animals.
Positive correlation with the advancing CIN grade (r > 0.3) displayed those dwt2 features that evaluate the mean and median of the H-image (dwt2H Mean Value and dwt2H Median Value), and negative correlations displayed those that evaluate the mean and the median of the absolute deviation (dwt2H Mean Absolute Deviation and dwt2H Median Absolute Deviation) (Table 3).
This was in the case when the test evaluation only considered the mean value and variance.
But overall, ICT was found more helpful in assignment preparation, exams and presentations having mean value of (3.55).
Serum Cystatin C mean value was significantly different in the normo-albuminuric diabetic group as compared to control group (p-value=0.009) due to raised levels of serum Cystatin C in a number of normo-albuminuric diabetic subjects.
Highest flag leaf area was exhibited by FD-83 having mean value 59.777 cm2 (Table 1).