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Absorption therefore occurs after these agents are metabolized (hydrolyzed) to bioactive aglycones by intestinal bacteria (Kobashi et al., 1992).
"The clinical utility would be to appropriately dose medications that could cause harm if not fully metabolized, especially in the elderly or in cases where patients are receiving multiple drugs," he added.
Other medications that are metabolized by the 1A2 isoenzyme of cytochrome P450 include haloperidol, olanzapine, thioridazine, tacrine, amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, warfarin, propranolol, methadone, verapamil, and theophylline.
A central axiom of the movement is "the right drug at the right dose for the right person at the right time." For example, assume you have a patient with a certain diagnosis that can be effectively treated with both drug X and drug Y, each of which is toxic if it is not metabolized effectively, Currently, because you have no idea how the patient might respond, you may well choose drug X, say, because it happens to be generic.
Phthalates are metabolized and excreted quickly; these metabolites, rather than the parent diesters, are believed to be the active toxicants.
However, concentrations of certain PCBs and other contaminants declined, suggesting that they had been metabolized.
The other potential source of problems lies with the fact that caffeine is metabolized by the 1A2 isoenzyme of cytochrome P-450.
Both are prodrugs that must be metabolized in order to release their active ingredients, Marilyn R.
Kaletra is metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450, almost wholly by the CYP3A isoform.
If not metabolized, the amino acid accumulates to toxic levels in the tissues.
So instead, the researchers concentrated on the compounds that enter the bloodstream after quercetin is ingested, absorbed and metabolized.
Scientists are striving to understand how fat is metabolized and how excess fat leads to diseases such as diabetes.