In the new research, Reneman and her colleagues split 50 boys ages 10 through 12, and 48 young adult men -- all of whom had never taken methylphenidate
-- into two equal groups.
For the study, the researchers tested 54 ADHD patients aged six to 17 years and compared the effects of Crocus sativus L.Eeto methylphenidate
over a six-week period.
In adults, clinicians' ratings found that amphetamines, methylphenidate
, bupropion, and atomoxetine --but not modafinil--were better than placebo.
The studies were conducted mainly in the US, Canada, and Europe, included males and females from ages 3-18, and all compared methylphenidate
with either a dummy pill or no intervention.
, which, in the 50s, had no definite use and was indicated for tiredness of the elderly, has now been the first therapeutic option for the Attention Deficit Disorder, with or without Hyperactivity (ADD/H) in children and adults.
Basically, that paper shows that methylphenidate
actually attenuated the deficits associated with damage induced by methamphetamine (methamphetamine does all the damage of amphetamine , but adds A LOT to that damage).
(10) A New Zealand study (11) of third-year university students in 2015 reported a rate of 6.6% for the use of cognitive enhancers, including methylphenidate
. More recently, a South African study (12) reported that 17.2% of undergraduate students at one university had used methylphenidate
with only 2.9% being diagnosed with ADHD.
Investigators in the German COMPAS (Comparison of Methylphenidate
and Psychotherapy in Adult ADHD Study) Consortium randomized 419 18- to 58-year-old outpatients with ADHD to one of four treatment arms: group CBT plus methylphenidate
or placebo, or nonspecific individual counseling plus methylphenidate
treatment, blood flow to these areas normalized, and rCBF to higher visual and superior prefrontal areas decreased.
Another register-based study, conducted in Denmark between 1998 and 2010, identified 480 pregnancies in which women had redeemed at least one prescription for an ADHD medication; 81.9% of these prescriptions were for methylphenidate
Only four stimulants are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for adults: Adderal XR (dextroam-phetamine/amphetamine), with a 9-hour duration of action and 15- to 30-mg dosage range; Focalin XR (dexmethylphenidate), with an 8- to 12-hour duration of action and dosage range of 20-40 mg; Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate), with a duration of 12 hours and dosing at 30-70 mg; and Concerta (methylphenidate
extended-release), with a 12-hour duration of action and dosage range of 18-54 mg.