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Until the 19th century and before the revolution of microbiology, 3 theoretical positions may be distinguished: 1) the miasmatic theory that proposes that contamination is caused by the state of the atmosphere, 2) a modified miasmatic theory that proposes that poor sanitary conditions affect the atmospheric disturbances, and 3) a theory about the combination of miasma/contagion, which may be called contingent contagionism (e.
As a result, everything solid that the rat touches turns into miasmatic air.
Though Victorian travel to the Mediterranean generally fell under one of two purviews--educational or medical--both are part and parcel of a greater industry of escapism, the former from modernity (in Greece's perceived antiquity) and the latter from England's cold, miasmatic air (Morgan 11).
Quoting from the Memoire instructif sur l'epizootie, written by one of Louis XVI's leading advisors, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot in 1776, Dorothee Brantz showed how the French authorities also adopted a contagionist stance against rinderpest and insisted not only on segregating animals and burying the dead in quicklime, but also disinfecting the barns and stables with sulphuric acid to annul or counteract the miasmatic vapours that festered therein.
2) The semantic development 'burnt smell, fumes, stink '>'plague, epidemic' can be understood in context of the so-called miasmatic theory, i.
Thus, mental disorder was treated on the basis of whatever physical illness was thought to underlie the mind's distress; physical illness was itself attributed to causes of constitutional delicacy, peccant humors, and miasmatic exposure, with Humorism providing the model for treatment (Waller 9-11).
On the other hand, Usher's belief that the particular "collocation" of stones, fungi, and trees have exerted a baleful influence on his family undercuts the traditionally benign aura of Romantic Pantheism by suggesting a malign spirit of apocalyptic doom and the contemporary theory of the miasmatic spread of disease.
Yet another example comes from the miasmatic theory of disease, which was prevalent in the mid-1800s.
Both of the latter are subsequently productive of more bodies, either in the factories such as that wherein 'there's a wheel as killed a man only last week' (353) or in the miserable, miasmatic, atmosphere of the town itself, whose fog whispers invitations to suicide, whose rain invites observers to 'go melancholy mad' and whose wind 'whistles .
The emphasis on sun and air neatly meshed with socio-medical miasmatic theory, which called for cleanliness and fresh air to dispel any bad air (an atmosphere of decomposing material) thought to cause illness.
Less explicitly topical than Inventory's brave and electrifying assessment of the miasmatic new century, Ossuaries crosses diverse times and spaces to portray a world riven by violence perpetrated on grand and minute scales: "some damage I had expected, but no one / expects the violence of glances, of offices, / of walkways and train stations, of bathroom mirrors.