Not coincidentally, then, apart from the initial eruption of misrule in the wake of Cromwell's propaganda, the bulk of the Tudor Cambridge records of Christmas Lords appear at protestant centers during the Edwardian period.
(110) Together, the Edwardian Cambridge records and Shepherd's satire foreshadow the iconoclastic humour to come, on a larger scale, from the Lord of Misrule as embodied by Ferrers.
'The hobby-horse is forgot': Unintended Consequences of Ferrers's Misrule
A great deal of insight into the fundamentally evangelical character of George Ferrers's misrule can be gleaned from exceptionally detailed Revels accounts and the colorful reactions of contemporary chroniclers, diplomats, and diarists.
(117) Special direction was also provided in the Revels Accounts for Misrule's fool, this time played by one of the King's Players, John Smith: 'one vices dagger & a ladle with a bable pendante ...
Catholic practices at which Ferrers's misrule took aim included religious processions.
(126) The new statutes read: 'First, it is agreed that, whereas this ordre was called the ordre of saint George, whereby th'onour due to God was gevin to a creature, it shal no more be so called, nor yet saint George reputed as patron therof, but it shall be called th'ordre of the gartier, or defence of the trueth.' (127) In misrule the following year, which, Ferrers warned a rival, 'was not of our device but of the Counseills appoyntement', (128) St.
In Revels Accounts of the subsequent season, 1552-3, anti-papal Apocalyptic symbolism recorded in Ferrers's own detailed instructions reflects the Lord of Misrule's role in evangelical propaganda as a sort of comic Pope as Antichrist, the inversion of godliness.
Ferrers's evangelical propaganda represented Catholicism as both carnivalesque and wicked, since, in addition to adopting the Apocalyptic beast as his emblem, the Lord of Misrule appears seated upon 'a dragons head and dragons mowthe of plate and stoppes to burne like fier'.
Furthering anti-papist hostility, Ferrers's 1551-2 entertainment in London, culminating in his arrival at the scaffold at Cheapside Cross, required 'stockes', 'a pyllary', 'a payer of manacles', 'Ieylers', and, most ominously, a 'hedding block, all of which were 'boghte for the lorde of misrule and occupied abowte hym'.
[Throws off the hobby-horse] (144) This later stereotypical antipathy, and the otherwise curious belief that the Hobby horse was a popish image, makes it all the more striking that the anti-papist Edwardian revels during Ferrers's reign as Lord of Misrule focused disproportionately on the Hobby horse.
Just how evangelicals finally made this transition to utter antipathy toward misrule is a question requiring much more research, since early evangelical uses have heretofore gone largely unrecognized.