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When John asserts that, say, his conscience requires pacifism, he acknowledges pacifism as a deliverance of this moral faculty.
Hume's moral faculty, based on the sentiments, bridged what ordinarily was thought as a rational instinct self contained, to an immediate response of more generalized feelings of humanity.
But it is exceedingly unlikely that any such distinct moral faculty exists, if only because the field we call morality cannot be neatly divided from numerous other aspects of mental life, including aesthetic evaluation, religious beliefs, rules of etiquette, prudential reasoning, legal rules, customs, and traditions.
Moral sense cannot be confused with a determination of reason, which can only look for and know means to reach the ends perceived by it, and is only circumscribed to this moral faculty.
In "The Rabbinic Social Contract," Maccoby reads accounts in Tosefta Avodah Zarah 8 and TB AZ as displaying another dialectical lesson: humanity has a natural moral faculty (displayed in the Noahide laws), but it is weak and needs supplementation by revealed instruction ("he who is commanded and does stands higher than he is not commanded and does").
Faced with Jesus' warning "Judge not lest you be judged," Midgley insists that Jesus is not taking aim at our moral faculty of judgment but instead criticizing vindictiveness.
The idea is that like our perceptual faculty, our moral faculty can be improved in the sense that we can learn to discriminate more finely via experience.
The enlightened self-interest model acts as some sort of surrogate for this moral faculty and, were it firmly tethered to general ethical theory, we might welcome it as an ingenious application of social contract theory.
The primary moral faculty for Jefferson, however, was not the intellect but the "moral sense.
This is seen best in the chapter on learning theory and conditioning, a body of work which depends on the assumptions, first, that criminal behaviour somehow equates with a measurable deficiency in a hypothetical moral faculty and secondly, that physical processes determine behaviour without the intervention of any real mental element.
He wrote A Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on Chemistry (1770), Sermons to Gentlemen Upon Temperance and Exercise (1772), An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America Upon Slave-Keeping (1773), and An Inquiry into the Influence of Physical Causes Upon the Moral Faculty (1786).