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Maximum difference occurs when sitric acid is used as mordant and minimum difference is observed when sodium dicromate is applied as mordant.
Light fastness properties of dyeing depend on the mordant and the mordanting method that are used.
The prepared stains were separated into three containers: one for the laurel extract + iron mixture; one for the laurel extract + alum mixture: and one for laurel extract with no mordant.
The results demonstrated that treatments with either mordant reduced the total color change more than the laurel without mordant treatments.
Delafield, Ehrlich, Mayer, Arnold, and Harris introduced new recipes using aluminum as the mordant, (5), (14) while Weigert, Weil, and Verhoeff proposed iron.
They are astringent and serve both as mordant and dye, like the gall nuts used in Europe.