dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Population genetic structure and molecular diversity of the red swamp crayfish in China based on mtDNA COI gene sequences.
MtDNA point mutations have been detected in brain and other central nervous system tumors, such as the gliomas, astrocytomas, gliomatosis cerebri, medulloblastomas, menengiomas, schwannomas and neurofibromas (25,26).
Sixty-five polymorphic sites were observed within the sequences of the mtDNA control region, about 1,045 bp after exclusion of the repeat motif.
To date, more than 75 pathogenic gene mutations have been identified in LS.[12] In general, patients with mtDNA mutations accounted for about 20% of LS.[5],[9] Complex I is the largest complex of the MRC, which contains 7 structural subunits (ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5 and ND6) encoded by the mitochondrial genome, at least 38 core subunits encoded by nuclear genome and a few assembly factors.[13],[14] Isolated complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical cause of LS.[2],[5],[8],[12],[15],[16] In our study, of the 13 LS patients, 8 (62%) had mtDNA mutations associated to complex I deficiency (T10191C, G13513A, C11777A, G11778A, and G14459A).
We observed that the frequency of the mtDNA T16189C polymorphism was higher in the MetS group, with 21 (32.3%) of 65 testing positive compared to 3 (8.5%) of 35 in the control group, suggesting that this polymorphism is associated with MetS in the Mexican population as previously reported for other populations [5-7].
These cases demonstrate the possible relationship between mtDNA content, female age, and embryo development, despite a lack of correlation between Mitoscore and chromosomal information of the embryo.
Since mtDNA becomes hypomethylated during senescence, we examined the role of three DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) that control DNA methylation.
Generation of Cybrid Cell Lines Covering the Major East Asian mtDNA Haplogroups.
All the sequences were first visually inspected with Chromas Lite 2.1 software (Technelysium Pty Ltd) to determine their quality; they were then imported into sequence-2-blast window to compare them with a standard sequence of the mtDNA D-loop region (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
However, a randomized clinical trial will be necessary to determine the true extent of any clinical benefit, she added, noting that research is also needed to improve understanding of the biology of mtDNA expansion.
We hypothesize that the estimated effects of exposure to air pollution on mtDNA content can be mediated via telomere biology or by expression of genes in the telomere-mitochondrial axis of aging.