We will illustrate the principles of underwriting long-term insurance in the presence of a multifactorial disorder
in the simple setting of the two-state continuous-time model in Figure 1.
[33,34] Therefore, for the complex and multifactorial disorder
like essential hypertension, it is important for future to look at definite number of genetic polymorphisms contributing to genetic variation depending on both effects of genetic and environmental background!33
are those wherein both genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the disorder.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are increasingly viewed as multifactorial disorders
owing to a complex interplay between genetic, microbial, environmental and immunological triggers.
The monogenic disorders account for a small part of mortality and morbidity in the general population, which is mainly contributed by complex multifactorial disorders
like diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, etc.
NTDs are known to be complex multifactorial disorders
arising from an array of genetic and environmental interactions.
Risk assessments for multifactorial disorders
will gain more attention, as will predictions of genotypes that increase the possibility of adverse outcomes when certain drugs are used (pharmacogenomics).
Genetic deviations are characterized thus as single gene, also called Mendelian disorders, chromosomal disorders, multifactorial disorders
, and mitochondrial disorders.
are complex disorders that are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they represent the largest group of conditions for which genetics plays a role (Spahis, 2002).
This brief report focuses on single gene and multifactorial disorders
. Single-gene disorders are caused by a mutation of the gene.
Most cases are multifactorial disorders
with relatively low risk recurrence.
Isolated NTDs are typically true multifactorial disorders
, reflecting a combination of genetic and environmental influences.