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Specifically, Xslug mRNA is strongly expressed in the lateral neural folds in early neural plate (stage 14, ~16 hr) embryos, coalesces into patterns approximating the premigratory crest aggregates by stage 16 (~18 hr), is evident in migratory streams in the head and trunk in taibud stages (stages 22-26, ~24-30 hr), but diminishes drastically by midtadpole development (stage 34, ~44 hr) as migration is completed (Linker et al.
The pathogenesis of encephalocele may be explained by separation of surface ectoderm and neuroectoderm in the midline just after closure of neural fold.
In the early neurulae (E4), MsxA is found at the neural plate border and in the presumptive epidermis; it is then downregulated in the presumptive neural fold territory (E5) and again expressed in the most dorsal aspect of the neural tube after its formation (E6-6.