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4-Chlorobenzoic acid (12a), [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (12b), 2-naphthoic acid (12c), 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid (12d), and 2-benzofurancarboxylic acid (12e) were isolated in 72%, 62%, 55%, 58%, and 62% yields, respectively, by the reaction of [beta]-keto sulfones 3a-e with excess nitrous acid at 0-5[degrees]C.
Effects of Surface Type and Relative Humidity on the Production and Concentration of Nitrous Acid in a Model Indoor Environment, Environmental Science and Technology 35: 2200-2206.
Atmospheric Chemistry Special Feature: Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards.
The kinetic of formation of nitrous acid (HONO) has been previously investigated, and literature indicates a general agreement on the overall rate of reaction under atmospheric conditions [12] the kinetic constant four reaction (1) being in the range of k = 6 x [10.sup.-12] [[cm.sup.3] [molecule.sup.-1] [s.sup.-1]] under tropospheric pressure at room temperature.
Nitrous acid is a common indoor pollutant chiefly generated by unvented gas appliances.
Day-time over-production of nitrous acid (HNO2) "can have a significant impact on the chemistry of the troposphere", the lowest, most dense and highly polluted layer of the atmosphere, according to researchers at the University of Wuppertal in Germany, the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland and the Villeurbanne Laboratory on applied chemistry in the environment in France.
The stirring was continued for 1h maintaining the same temperature with positive test for nitrous acid. Excess of nitrous acid was killed by adding a pinch of sulphamic acid.
During the treatment of wastewater with high ammonium concentrations, as the effluent of pig slurry coming from the anaerobic digestion, the presence of free ammonia (N[H.sub.3] or FA) and/or free nitrous acid (HN[O.sub.2] or FNA) can affect the performance of the partial nitrification process.
Nitrous acid (HN[O.sub.2]), which quickly degrades in sunlight to form the hydroxyl radical OH, appears to spend the night tucked in the ground so that it can be steadily released under the right atmospheric conditions.
Of these IS-4 exhibited relatively better enzyme production (224.2 U) and hence selected for further improvement through the treatment with ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and nitrous acid (NA).
Based on studies led by Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D., also at LBNL, these substances can go on to react with indoor pollutants such as ozone and nitrous acid, creating brand-new compounds, some of which may be carcinogenic.
Both the filter-paper and wipe samples were analyzed, showing that ambient nitrous acid levels were able to produce TSNAs by reaction with nicotine.