(6.) Another 80 nominals that could not be classified as belonging to one or only one of these concepts were not taken into account.
(12.) However, the rather small quantity of OBJECT nominals may not be representative for the German language in general, as newspapers seem to focus more on persons and incidents than on objects.
There are three tendencies to be observed in language change and language acquisition, namely a tendency toward more multilexemic versus monolexemic bases of the -er-suffix, a tendency toward more verbal versus nominal bases, and a tendency toward more PERSON concepts versus OBJECT concepts expressed by the -er-suffix.
Historically, the -er-suffix can be traced back to two different origins: first the Latin suffix -arius, which generated PERSON-denoting nouns out of nominal bases, and second, the Germanic suffix *-warja, which created names of origins out of geographic names.
Drei+er 'a bus with the number three (three+er)'), but we will restrict ourselves to the discussion of verbal and nominal bases in the following.
The formation of nouns with nominal bases, as opposed to verbal bases, is a structural option that is very old.
If we stretch the word nominal
just slightly, we can derive denominator.
Event-denoting -ung nominals are possible, if the event structure of the underlying base verb meets certain conditions.
Contrary to this, the -ung nominals Verkorkung and Besteigung can cooccur with a durative adverbial, as shown in (20b) and (21b), and they can be modified by a durative adjective, as in (20c) and (21c).
This analysis, however, cannot easily be transferred to -ung nominals such as Erblindung, Erlahmung, and Vertaubung, which are derived from the intransitive prefix verbs with an adjective stem.
In this section we have discussed the event structures of -ung nominals. Now we can compare the event structures of base verbs and their -ung nominals with each other as follows: they are both interval-based and their intervals consist of three stages, source state, change, and target state.
There is a group of-ung nominals whose event structures seem to exhibit a different relation between source state and target state.