Latencies during the RAWM learning phase in aged mice were significantly higher than for nonaged adult mice, indicating decline in spatial learning ability with old age [[F.sub.(1,34)] = 38.4 1 3, *** P <0.001] (Figure 6), but no significant gender-based latency differences were observed (Ps > 0.05) (Figure 7).
For aged mice, numbers of errors significantly increased relative to the error numbers for nonaged adult mice, reflecting significant decline in spatial memory ability with advanced age as measured during the RAWM memory phase [[F.sub.(1,34)] = 12.440, ** P = 0.001 (<0.01)] (Figure 8).
Latencies significantly declined more during the RAWM memory phase in nonaged adult mice versus aged mice [[F.sub.(1,34)] = 13.613, ** P = 0.001 (<0.01)] (Figure 10).
There were no significant correlations among nesting scores in nest building and number of errors and latencies in RAWM in aged and nonaged adult male or female C57BL/6 mice (Ps > 0.05).
Age-based and gender-based behavioral differences in nest building and RAWM performance were evaluated for aged and nonaged adult C57BL/6 mice.
In MWM cued learning tests, latencies due to differences in swimming speed, nonspatial learning ability, visual acuity, and motor or sensorimotor functions in aged mice were similar to latencies in nonaged adult mice.
The excluded sample was enrolled for a shorter time on average--half a month less in Part A and about 4 months less for Part B, and to have substantially fewer months of state by-in, especially among the nonaged. This is not surprising given our exclusion criteria--the shorter the coverage period during the year, the less likely it is that we will observe claims.
Tables 2 and 3 present the three estimated cost functions for aged and nonaged beneficiaries, respectively.
Outpatient clinics had higher costs (positive coefficients) relative to HCs for all three cost types, and for both the aged and the nonaged. Physician offices had higher total costs and higher nonprimary costs but lower primary costs, also for both age groups.
Table 4 presents simulated annual costs for an aged and a nonaged Medicare beneficiary (total costs, primary care costs, and nonprimary care costs) conditional on where they receive their primary care.
Findings for the nonaged were very similar in most cases.