For the Northern Cardinal and House Finch there was no significant difference in the mean body weights of those infected compared to those that were not (t = 0.07, P > 0.05 and t = 1.47, P > 0.05, respectively), however, in the House Sparrow, infected individuals had a higher mean body weight (t = 2.71, P < 0.01)(Table 2).
Host Species Infected n Northern Cardinal 40.9 [+ or -] 6.4% 8 House Sparrow 30.4 [+ or -] 6.9% 7 House Finch 20.3 [+ or -] 5.8% 4 Host Species Uninfected n t P Northern Cardinal 41.4 [+ or -] 1.4% 29 .07 <0.05 House Sparrow 27.6 [+ or -] 0.72% 48 2.71 >0.01 House Finch 20.7 [+ or -] 0.68% 30 1.47 <0.05 Assessing the effects of blood parasites on wild hosts is a difficult process and there is even some debate as to whether these parasites are pathogenic or not (Atkinson & Van Riper 1991).
Of the 84 avian species recorded, the most frequent were northern cardinal
(n = 110), black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) (n = 109), American robin (n = 103), bluejay (n = 102), and American crow (n = 100).
to 10 Aug., 2009: White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus; Hopp et al., 1995), Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea; Kershner and Ellison, 2012), Northern Cardinal
(Cardinalis cardinally, Halkin and Linville, 1999), Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris; Lowther et al., 1999), and Lark Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus; Martin et al., 2000).
, dark-eyed juncos, and song sparrows were collected on the study areas during November, December, January, and February of 1980-81, 1981-82, and 1982-83; white-throated sparrows were collected in 1982-83 only.
It was started to collect data on the state's northern cardinal
, tufted titmouse and northern mockingbird populations.
The northern cardinal
, red-bellied woodpecker, tufted titmouse and Carolina wren are relatively new additions to many New York backyards and continue to expand their ranges to the north.
Our study further suggests that oral tests of House Sparrows, House Finches, and Northern Cardinals
, three common urban or suburban species, might be efficiently used to survey for WNV in some areas where corvid populations have been diminished by WNV (11) or are uncommon for other reasons.
(Cardinalis cardinalis) and Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) were the two most common species encountered in all seasons across study phases.
The species with the highest seropositivity (>10% and >1 positive sample) were Rock Doves, Great Horned Owls, Chukar, Northern Cardinals
, House Sparrows, and Brown Thrashers.
Among the larger numbers recorded this year - along with the evening grosbeaks, pine grosbeaks and common redpolls - were 731 house sparrows, 689 rock (Dove) pigeons, 533 dark-eyed juncos, 508 cedar waxwings, 478 starlings, 462 American tree sparrows, 396 American crows, 383 tufted titmouse, 326 American goldfinches, 275 mourning doves, 252 snow buntings, 230 wild turkeys, 217 black-capped chickadees, 204 white-breasted nuthatches, 126 northern cardinals
, 131 downy woodpeckers, 111 common ravens and 101 blue jays.
Null models were included in the top models of occupancy for six species, ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), Northern cardinal
(Cardinalis cardinalis), Eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus), and Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicanus).