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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Nucleic Acids with a Six-membered Carbohydrate Mimic in the backbone
Bayer Diagnostics' NAD business segment manufactures, markets and distributes assays based on state-of-the-art nucleic acid technologies for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of viral based markers.
With an unmatched track record in large scale manufacturing and extensive expertise across a broad range of nucleic acid APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients), Avecia Biotechnology is the market leader in contract manufacturing and related services for nucleic acid drugs.
Proligo is a dedicated specialist in professional and progressive nucleic acid products.
At the very least, they say, their self-copying molecule should help scientists address a profound question of biochemistry: How did nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA come to embody a blueprint for making proteins -- the stuff of hair, muscles and key biological molecules such as enzymes?
Future 2018: Novel nucleic acid product sales and Global nucleic acid product sales
Patent and Trademark Office issued a notice of allowance dealing with an invention that has numerous applications, including nucleic acid detection, quantification and purification, and determining genetic defects and mutations.
McClain also points out that although Schimmel used the nucleic acid pair to transform one kind of tRNA into a tRNA that binds to the amino acid alanine, when McClain introduced exactly the same amino acid pair into another tRNA (that for the amino acid glycine), it failed to bind alanine.
Nucleic acid amplification is one of the most commonly performed molecular biology techniques and is a necessary precursor to a range of methods from gene cloning and site-directed mutagenesis to the quantitative analysis of gene expression.
Otsu-shi, Japan) has patented a polypeptide having an activity for targeting a heterogeneous polypeptide to a surface of cytoplasmic membrane, a nucleic acid encoding the polypeptide, a construct for introducing into a cell, comprising the nucleic acid, a transformant harboring a carrier for introducing into a cell, a method for localizing a polypeptide on a cell surface, a method for detecting the polypeptide or nucleic acid and a kit therefor, and a method for detecting a ligand or receptor for the polypeptide.