dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
There are several types of nucleic acid drugs with differences in structure, targeting and mechanism of action, and pharmaceutical products such as antisense therapies that target RNA as well as aptamers that bind to proteins outside cells and interfere with their function have been approved (including in Japan).
The experimental data used for model development occurred over a wide range and the data of OBCFA contents were more variable than the nucleic acid bases value in rumen (Table 3).
Even highly purified nucleic acid preparations are reported in literature (see Reference 2) to contain potentially dangerous levels of Fe2+ ions.
Molecular biology laboratories face diverse challenges in their nucleic acid extraction workflows, which are mainly dictated by scale of operation.
Nucleic acid 1 was denatured at 95 [degrees]C for 10 min and cooled to room temperature in 1X NEB buffer 4 (New England Biolabs) [20 mmol/LTris-acetate (pH 7.9), 50 mmol/L potassium acetate, 10 mmol/L magnesium acetate, and 1 mmol/L dithiothreitol].
In preliminary studies that used referential RNA viruses, we attempted to determine the nucleic acid sequences of SARS coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and dengue virus type 2 in culture supernatants (10-100 [micro]L) by using the RDV method.
Of these, 23 were antibody negative and were identified as HIV-positive only with the nucleic acid amplification testing; the latter increased the HIV case identification rate by 4% over standard testing alone (N.
Codon: a specific sequence of 3 nucleotides (nucleic acid building blocks) that is part of a genetic code and denotes a particular amino acid in a protein chain; the sequence may also start or stop protein synthesis.
Despite the effectiveness of nucleic acid damage at discriminating between useful blood components and pathogens, some physicians worry that introducing into patients even trace amounts of compounds that damage their genetic material would perhaps trigger cancers.
As an industry standard for sequence analysis, the Wisconsin Package offers database searching, fragment assembly, multiple sequence comparison and alignment, nucleic acid secondary structure prediction, evolutionary analysis, PCR primer prediction, gene prediction and protein analysis, all powered by robust algorithms.
ATLANTA -- Diagnosis of genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis has been revolutionized by nucleic acid amplification.
With respect to the latter, the target gene sequence is identified by a DNA probe that can form a double-stranded hybrid with its complementary nucleic acid, where the formation of the latter is detected by radiochemical or fluorescent labelling.