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LANGUAGE. The faculty which men possess of communicating their perceptions and ideas to one another by means of articulate sounds. This is the definition of spoken language; but ideas and perceptions may be communicated without sound by writing, and this is called written language. By conventional usage certain sounds have a definite meaning in one country or in certain countries, and this is called the language of such country or countries, as the Greek, the Latin, the French or the English language. The law, too, has a peculiar language. Vide Eunom. Dial. 2; Technical.
     2. On the subjugation of England by William the Conqueror, the French Norman language was substituted in all law proceedings for the ancient Saxon. This, according to Blackstone, vol. iii. p. 317, was the language of the records, writs and pleadings, until the time of Edward III. Mr. Stephen thinks Blackstone has fallen into an error, and says the record was, from the earliest period to which that document can be traced, in the Latin language. Plead. Appx. note 14. By the statute 36 Ed. III. st. 1, c. 15, it was enacted that for the future all pleas should be pleaded, shown, defended, answered, debated and judged in the English tongue; but be entered and enrolled in Latin. The Norman or law French, however, being more familiar as applied to the law, than any other language, the lawyers continued to employ it in making their notes of the trial of cases, which they afterwards published, in that barbarous dialect, under the name of Reports. After the enactment of this statute, on the introduction of paper pleadings, they followed in the language, as well as in other respects, the style of the records, which were drawn up in Latin. This technical language continued in use till the time of Cromwell, when by a statute the records were directed to be in English; but this act was repealed at the restoration, by Charles II., the lawyers finding it difficult to express themselves as well and as concisely in the vernacular as in the Latin tongue; and the language of the law continued as before till about the year 1730, when the statute of 4 Geo. II. c. 26, was passed. It provided that both the pleadings and the records should thenceforward be framed in English. The ancient terms and expressions which had been so long known in French and Latin were now literally translated into English. The translation of such terms and phrases were found to be exceedingly ridiculous. Such terms as nisi prius, habeas corpus, fieri facias, mandamus, and the like, are not capable of an English dress with any degree of seriousness. They are equally absurd in the manner they are employed in Latin, but use and the fact that they are in a foreign language has made the absurdity less apparent.
     3. By statute of 6 Geo. II., c. 14, passed two years after the last mentioned statute, the use of technical words was allowed to continue in the usual language, which defeated almost every beneficial purpose of the former statute. In changing from one language to another, many words and technical expressions were retained in the new, which belonged to the more ancient language, and not seldom they partook of both; this, to the unlearned student, has given an air of confusion, and disfigured the language of the law. It has rendered essential also the study of the Latin and French languages. This perhaps is not to be regretted, as they are the keys which open to the ardent student vast stores of knowledge. In the United States, the records, pleadings, and all law proceedings are in the English language, except certain technical terms which retain their ancient French and Latin dress.
     4. Agreements, contracts, wills and other instruments, may be made in any language, and will be enforced. Bac. Ab. Wills, D 1. And a slander spoken in a foreign language, if understood by those present, or a libel published in such language, will be punished as if spoken or written in the English language. Bac. Ab. Slander, D 3; 1 Roll. Ab. 74; 6 T. R. 163. For the construction of language, see articles Construction; Interpretation; and Jacob's Intr. to the Com. Law Max. 46.
     5. Among diplomatists, the French language is the one commonly used. At an early period the Latin was the diplomatic language in use in Europe. Towards the end of the fifteenth century that of Spain gained the ascendancy, in consequence of the great influence which that country then exercised in Europe. The French, since the age of Louis XIV. has become the almost universal diplomatic idiom of the civilized world, though some states use their national language in treaties and diplomatic correspondence. It is usual in these cases to annex to the papers transmitted, a translation in the language of the opposite party; wherever it is understood this comity will be reciprocated. This is the usage of the Germanic confederation, of Spain, and of the Italian courts. When nations using a common language, as the United States and Great Britain, treat with each other, such language is used in their diplomatic intercourse.
     Vide, generally, 3 Bl. Com. 323; 1 Chit., Cr. Law, *415; 2 Rey, Institutions Judiciaires de l'Angleterre, 211, 212.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
(5) Even though we take the things we name for granted, as if they could only have one possible configuration, one possible name, the distinctive identities we give to things, concepts and objects is always a function of the social world (or in the case of nursing language, the professional world) undertaking the naming.
Promote the inclusion data collected in long term care settings into the standardized nursing language systems.
Recommendations from the conferences reflected five major areas for strategy development including: (a) information technology, (b) nursing language, (c) research, (d) evidence-based practice, and (e) public visibility of nursing (Lamb, Jennings, Mitchell, & Lang, 2004).
Also, since no other nursing language systems were in wide use throughout the state, promoting N3 would not compete with other nursing languages.
The steps to use standardized nursing languages will facilitate preparations to exchange the nursing documentation as a data set within the electronic continuity of care document when transferring care to another hospital, nursing care center, community center, home care, hospice, and other settings.
The clinical terms project is now extending the codes to cover nursing language and terms used in "professions allied to medicine" such as midwives and physiotherapists.
Primary health care nurses working in communities know too well that nursing language and communication is value laden and can result in power inequities in health relationships and affect health outcomes.
According to AORN, "The PNDS is the first, and to date, the only nursing language developed by a specialty organization that has been recognized by the American Nurses Association as a data set useful for perioperative nursing practice.
To do this, a nationwide information infrastructure which adopts a standardized nursing language should be developed in the United States.
They describe the nursing process and the concept of evidence-based practice; the assessment process; developing and documenting care using mind or concept mapping; standardized nursing languages, with a focus on diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes; nursing diagnoses for numerous diseases and disorders, listed alphabetically, with information on risk factors, desired outcomes and evaluation criteria, actions and interventions, nursing priorities, and documentation; and 850 health conditions and client concerns with associated diagnoses written as client problem/need statements and coded by specialty area.
This section reviews standardized nursing languages such as NANDA-I and NOC.
Another significant effort of ANA was to support the definition and implementation of standards related to use of nursing languages in computer-based systems through the establishment of the Nursing Information and Data Set Evaluation Center (NIDSEC[TM]) in 1996.

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