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OLIGARCHY. This name is given to designate the power which a few citizens of a state have usurped, which ought by the constitution to reside in the people. Among the Romans the government degenerated several times into an oligarchy; for example, under the decemvirs, when they became the only magistrates in the commonwealth.

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Wellen goes further than other studies to integrate the pattern of oligarchic, partly elective governance in Wajo with similar patterns in the Wajo diaspora of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
That should emerge more clearly in the coming month, as both sides muster their political assets, define their strategies and tactics, and engage in a good old fashioned political brawl that should determine whether the dignity and rights of citizens or the perpetual incumbency of a sectarian and often family-based oligarchic power structure triumphs.
The authors convincingly show, for example, how administrative decentralization is used to enhance the central authority of dominant parties, and how "social accountability" mechanisms channel middle-class NGOs into technocratic, non-confrontational activities that fail to build wider coalitions capable of challenging oligarchic domination.
According to him, Indonesian politics is "characterized by high level of fragmentation, involving both oligarchic and non-oligarchic elements" (p.
Obama has a fundamental faith in financial oligarchic capitalism: What is good for Goldman Sachs is good for America.
The oligarchic and self-recruiting councils of municipal communities possessed great power - but power of seigneurial origin.
We are eyeing a country (Turkey) that has built its infrastructure, progressed in science and technology to the highest levels, embraced true democracy and freed itself of oligarchic guardianship," said Erdogan.
At 106 pages, the book reads more like an extended essay than a scholarly volume, but it still provides a comprehensive outline of the oligarchic currents in local, national, and global politics today.
Chapter 4, the central part of the book, argues that capitalism has four types--state-guided capitalism, oligarchic capitalism, big-firm capitalism and entrepreneurial capitalism.
Oligarchic electoral systems are the most common type of authoritarian systems, many emerging from the crisis of military dictatorship of the 1970-80's.
It actually gave Nigerian democracy the oligarchic dress it is now putting on.
The sustainability movement is at the forefront of a global response to a major paradigmatic shift (great change) in the pattern of civilization, from oligarchic capitalism and power systems to a global democratic system in which long-term social, economic and environmental vitality are linked together and extended to all parts of our world.