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Here, the comparison to predatory pricing conducted by oligopolists is instructive.
On one hand, each of the n identical Cournot oligopolists could choose a single output strategy that solves the following optimization problem given below for the [i.
i) The MNF's downstream branch does not exercise monopsony power, and the rival becomes an oligopolist with the MNF's upstream branch, which determines the input price it charges the MNF.
For odd n, the denominator of a stable cartel member's profits is b(n + 3)(n - 1), which is less than the denominator of profits of a symmetric Cournot oligopolist by the positive amount 4b.
inevitable result of ordinary profit maximization by oligopolists.
The country's earnings from its oligopolist market position (it is worth bearing in mind that in many countries the definition of a monopoly position requires only a 25% market share) are around $2bn a year.
Refusing peering can be seen as anti-competitive: refusing peering is to make the peering arrangement an entry barrier with a few oligopolists using their market power to decide the peering arrangement.
These specialized markets involve oligopolists (a few CEO sellers) and oligopsonists (a few corporate buyers).
Focusing more on how firms interact with each other, Carlin, Lobo, and Viswanathan (2004) argue that a market with a few large players will be stable most of the time, as firms choose optimally to act as cooperating oligopolists.
Oligopolists base pricing decisions in part on anticipated reactions to such decisions; they are "interdependent" with respect to their pricing.
Because low-fare carriers serve as an effective curb against noncompetitive oligopolistic airline pricing, antitrust measures may be required to allow vulnerable start-ups to compete with existing oligopolists.
The problem with this expanded property creation scheme, he (rather lamely) suggests, is that the property being created is gobbled up by a few rapacious oligopolists.