To compare the onerousness
of various penalties, Professors Andrew von Hirsch and Andrew Ashworth have proposed utilizing a "living standard analysis," which von Hirsch and Professor Nils Jareborg developed in the context of evaluating the severity of criminal offenses.
This means that either some estimate of future burdens must be made for each person for each acquired resource and this compensation received instantly, or that the process of compensation will be ongoing as the relative onerousness
for each person becomes apparent over time.
Despite the onerousness
of regulation to many in the farm community, the threat of future regulatory action can play an important role in promoting alternative production practices without placing overly burdensome costs on farmers.
of applying the Dutch government's policies provides a clear example of the weakness of such approaches.
Despite the expectation that the onerousness
of the pre-petition process required of international firms accused of dumping could both deter them from engaging in dumping and discourage them from continuing their dumping practices in case they are currently dumping, such an effect does not seem to be present.
The overriding concern at present is not the pace of privatization, but the regime's unwillingness to cut Hungary's high marginal tax rates--which rival only those of Sweden in their onerousness
But even if the employer demonstrates the onerousness
of monitoring nonwork communications to discern whether [sections] 7 activities are being conducted on company time, it has not carried its burden of demonstrating that either production or discipline are compromised.
On a desert rationale, these offenses should receive non-custodial sanctions of varying degrees of onerousness
, depending on the seriousness of the offense.
Choice between types of service, based on interest and qualification, would further temper the onerousness
of the conditions.