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The findings of some earlier studies did not justify the use of preoperative hair removal because the conventional preoperative shave was often associated with epidermal injuries and predisposed the patient to wound infection by causing the normal skin flora to contaminate the operative field.
When the operative field is too stained to visualize well or when significant clots are present, the irrigator can be used.
Whatever the clinical situation, an operative field will always be established whenever possible.
This might be a confounding variable, as surgeries with resection of the rectum already have an increased risk of infection due to the high microbial load present in the operative field, in addition to the low anastomosis, close to the anal border, thus considered of high risk for dehiscence and SSI.
In addition, LA allows better visualization of the operative field than open surgery, since adrenal gland lesions are usually relatively small and located deep in the retroperitoneum and close to other vulnerable structures.
Tips are provided on patient comfort and the creation of an optimal operative field.
These techniques avoid the previous operative field in recurrent hernias.
I did so because of the procedure's potential to make a difference in fine critical factors of tumor control, postoperative urinary continence, and erectile function, thanks to extraordinary three dimensional visualization and magnification of the operative field.
When a matter is regarded as within the common knowledge of laymen, such as when a surgeon amputates the wrong leg, or when there is an injury to a part of a body not within the operative field, a jury may infer negligence without the aid of an expert.
This permits a sensor outside the direct operative field to correlate with the bone segments of interest.