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Reynolds argues that Whitman's 1860 Leaves of Grass operates in this optative mode of willing the country into a reconciled state that Culler refers to as the "now" or "time of discourse": "'I will,' [Whitman] constantly tells us.
The non-auxiliaried l-participle form is available in Croatian to express the Optative as well as a general past meaning, suggesting that the two forms may have something in common.
This elevated, optative, kingdom-oriented theme also interacts in subtle ways with an important early function for psalms, their use for public worship at the Temple in Jerusalem.
Postmodernism veers toward open, playful, optative, disjunctive, displaced, or indeterminate forms, a discourse of fragments, an ideology of fracture, a will to unmaking, an invocation of silences--veers toward all these and yet implies their very opposites, their antithetical realities.
The Spanish subjunctive and the Albanian optative express desire with similar semantic features, however, they are expressed with different syntactical structures.
Then he looks at some of the dispositions cultivated by the narrative, particularly feelings of helplessness, knowingness, shame, and a peculiar attitude he calls optative.
In the Athapaskan language Slave (Rice 1989:1259-1261), purpose constructions are marked by the complementizer gha and the use of optative mood on the verb of the purpose clause, as illustrated in (18) below, where the verb 'eat' in the clause denoting the purpose is marked as optative.
Appendix 1: Abbreviations A transitive subject ANG ang-class intransitive subject or object (historically an old neuter) DEM demonstrative FUT future IMP imperative HAB habitual INCH inchoative ITER iterative O object OBL oblique OPT optative pl plural PP past perfective PST past sg singular 1, 2, 3 first, second, third person > 'acts upon', for example, 3p1A>30 'third person plural subject acts upon third person singular object'.
For more than thirty years ecologists have been announcing this "emergence" in an optative mood.
1) In this play, matresco, a verb that describes growing to resemble one's mother, is uttered by the enslaved title character in an optative subjunctive form: Utinam nunc matrescam ingenio, ut meum patrem ulcisci queam (Now if only I should be able to become like my mother in cleverness, so that I may be able to avenge my father).