overburden

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Educational leaders will have to shoulder much of the responsibility for helping the community understand the educational costs of our overburdened schools.
The water characteristic curves of the soils and overburdens were determined using the filter paper method described by Fawcett and Collis-George (1967).
In most cases, tilling did not occur on the overburdens at any slope.
Rilling could not be initiated on 5 of the overburden plots (Curragh, Goonyella Norwich Pk tertiary, Wandoan, and Blackwater overburdens) at the maximum flow rates used in the laboratory (1.8 L/s).
Physical and chemical properties of the soils and overburdens are listed in Table 2.
Soils were generally more erodible than overburdens, as many of the overburdens either contained considerable amounts of rock, or tended to seal strongly.
The physical properties of the overburdens varied considerably, although they were generally characterised by high ESP values and/or high rock contents.
Determinations for organic carbon were not carried out on the overburdens as these media have been sourced from depths of up to 100 m and were therefore assumed to have no, or negligible, organic carbon.
An initial qualitative assessment of rill and interill data indicated some clear trends in terms of the types of soils and overburdens associated with high and low levels of erodibility.
Soils and overburdens ranked in order from highest to lowest for rill and interill erodibility coefficients
The media least susceptible to interill erosion were the rocky overburdens, due to the protection from raindrop impact provided by the rock armour.
Table 4 indicates that physical and chemical properties best correlated with erosion rates are different at different slopes, or when the data are grouped into soils or overburdens only.