Dubrow also discusses "cultural conditions" that may have affected the positions of addressee and overhearer
in the production and reception of Renaissance lyric poetry, including the "labile positions" for speaker and audience encouraged by the regular "practice of an entire congregation singing a hymn" ("'Stand and unfold yourself"').
While the differences in the media environments between the periods 1993-2000 and 2009-12 should not be diminished, both media environments are globalized and information intensive, meaning that in both periods political leaders would have to expect overhearers
to exist for a message delivered in any public context.
(both known and unknown) are those hearers that are not reflexively intended by the speaker to participate in the illocutionary act (Clark and Carlson 1982: 342-343, 350).
In the aftermath of a witch annihilation, eaters would beat the tightly-bound spathe walls of their houses with large sticks, the gunshot-like sound resounding across the landscape to startle overhearers
into wondering what had happened.
In addition to the intended addressees in a conversation, there may also be overhearers
(both intended and unintended).
like volunteers, moderator like chairs or discussants.